Somos Primos

 March 2005 
Editor: Mimi Lozano

Dedicated to Hispanic Heritage and Diversity Issues
Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research

Latino Advocates for Education are Seeking Super Patriot Mexican-American Families, whose sons served in World War II. We have identified twenty families who had 3 or more brothers serving at the same time during the war. In fact we found four families with 6 brothers, one family with 7 brothers and one family with 8 brothers who served!  We know that there are more 3+ Blue Star families and we need your assistance in documenting and honoring them at a special November event.  Francisca (Gandara) and Agustin Banuelos immigrated to the United States from Chihuahua, Mexico to Los Angeles about 1919 where their two youngest sons were born, Charles in 1921 and Jesus, in 1928.  All six sons served in the U.S. Army during WW II.  Click for project  information.
Content Areas

United States
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. . 25 
Galvez Patriots
.  28
Orange County, CA
. . 30
Los Angeles, CA
. . 36
. . 52
Northwestern US
. . 68
Southwestern US 
. . 69
. . 86
  . . 90
. . 95
  . . 108

East of the Mississippi  . . 121
East Coast
. . 123
. . 125
. . 134 
  . . 138
  . . 143
History   . . 147
Family History
. . 150
. . 155
. . 157
Meetings March 19 SHHAR Quarterly



  Letters to the Editor : 

Dear Mimi, Happy New Year!
Just a quick note to let you and your staff know that I truly appreciate receiving the monthly newsletter, Somos Primos.  
It was with great sadness yesterday that I read the announcement regarding the passing of a very dear friend, Victoria Duarte Cordova. 
I met Victoria over ten years ago at a meeting with Los Californianos in Oceanside. We chatted that evening and discovered that we had both lived in Pacoima, in the beautiful San Fernando Valley! As a child, Victoria had known members of my mother's Romero and Tapia families residing in Pacoima. Victoria gave us the old photographs of our people. As I recall, she also knew Bert Colima, the boxer. Bert (my grandfather's nephew) was a Romero but took his mother's name, Colima, for professional reasons. All this information that Victoria shared with us was very comforting to my mother, and it validated some of my mother's family history.
All my best, and with sincere gratitude,
Lorri Ruiz Frain
Hello I just saw your page of  the genealogy of Don Juan Galindo Morales and I found one of my ancestors, Geronimo Zertuche Galindo. I
am very interested in any more information about him and don Juan de Zertuche's ancestors, if you have any. Geronimo had a son named Jose Francisco Salvador, and he is the great grandfather of my great granDfather, Manuel Zertuche Narro. I am very interested in finding out who was the first Zertuche in Mexico that is my ancestor and where he came from, so if you could provide some information I would be more than grateful. I have my line of descendance from Geronimo Zertuche to me, and to my brother's soon to be grandchild, so that would make a lot of generations if you are interested on the info. I would really appreciate your reply.

Eduardo Zertuche V. 
+ (844) 419-1245 cel. 


   Somos Primos Staff:   
Mimi Lozano, Editor
John P. Schmal, 
Johanna De Soto, 
Howard Shorr
Armando Montes
Michael Stevens Perez
Judge Fredrick Aguirre
Linda Aguirre
Gilberto Arteaga
Lilia Arteaga
Tom Ascensio
Mercy Bautista-Olvera
Miguel Bedolla
Jerry Benavides
Jack Blair
Bill Carmena
Roberto Calderon
Jaime Cader
Elias J. Carrillo
Michael Connolly Terrazas 
Angel Custodio Rebollo   
Leonardo de la Torre y Berúmen 
Johanna De Soto
Edna Elizondo Gonzalez
Charlie Erickson
Martin Espino
Karla Everett
Evelyn Garcia 

Mara L. García, Ph.D
Micky Garcia.
Angelita Garmondez
George Gause
Gloria Golden
Teresa Zelda Haro 
Lorraine Hernandez
John Inclan
Nellie Kaniski 
Larry Kirkpatrick 
Frank Longoria
Carlos Lopez Dzur

Lou Marchetti
Wilfred Martinez
Edgardo Moctezuma
Dorinda Lupe Moreno
Marcos Nava 
Rafael Ojeda
Mario Robles del Moral
Jose M. Pena
Cruz Perez
Elvira Prieto 
Rudy Ramirez
Raymundo Eli Rojas
Lorri Ruiz Frain
George Ryskamp
Viola Sadler
Rubén Sálaz Márquez
Dr. Octavio Santana Suárez
Sister Mary Sevilla
Rebecca Shokrian,
Howard Shorr  
Elena Stoupignan 
Robert Tarin
Lynn C Turner
Dick Trzaskoma       
Manuel Quinones
JD Villarreal
Paula Wakefield Trujillo
Tammy Young
Jimmy Zepeda
Eduardo Zertuche V. 
SHHAR Board:  Laura Arechabala Shane, Bea Armenta Dever, Steven Hernandez,  Mimi Lozano Holtzman, Pat Lozano, Henry Marquez, Yolanda Ochoa Hussey, Gloria Oliver, Michael Perez, Crispin Rendon, Viola Rodriguez Sadler, John P. Schmal


Emma Tenayuca
The WALL Writing Contest 
What to Call Ourselves is Personal 
Latino group sets out to mend inner divide 

U.S. General Attorney Alberto Gonzales
Marco Portales' 'Latino Sun, Rising' falls on lack of supporting research
Chilling mystery: Why don't Mexicans read books?
AzA Gazette, nutrition and education 
LATINHEAT, entertainment and current happenings
"!Siempre Mujer!"  New lifestyle magazine targets Hispanic women
Breast Cancer in Latina Women
Illegal Immigrants Rarely Use Hard-Won Tuition Break

Let's Move on to Effective Border Security 
Changing school with the season


Emma Tenayuca as subject for an article:  Jimmy Zepeda

"Emma Tenayuca is a name still whispered on the West Side of San Antonio, especially among those who lived through the 1930s. While still in her early twenties, she was the charismatic leader of a labor movement that shook San Antonio, both because it affected the city’s largest industry at the time—pecan shelling—and because it marked the first sign of political liberation of the city’s Mexican American populace from the bossism that had controlled it for decades." 

-- Geoffrey Rips in "Living history: Emma Tenayuca tells her story"

Source for information below:

Emma Tenayuca was born on December 21, 1916, in San Antonio, Texas, one of eleven children. She lived with her grandparents during her childhood to ease her parent's strife. When she was 16 years old, she joined the labor movement and found out all about the Finck Cigar Company strikes. She graduated from Brackenridge High School in 1934 and became an elevator operator. However, she was still in the labor movement, and was arrested once when she joined the Finck Cigar Company picket line.

In 1937, in San Antonio, Emma was named the Workers' Alliance's general secretary for ten chapters. Also, she was asked to be the strike representative in January 1938 for the pecan shellers, which she accepted. The problem was that the pecan dust made the workers have high tuberculosis rates and as workers, they had inadequate restrooms and cleaning facilities. Their wages had also been cut in half, unfairly.

Soon, Emma was granted permission to speak at the Municipal Auditorium at a small Communist party meeting on August 25, 1939. However, the auditorium was stormed with people who hated Communists and the whole meeting got really violent. Emma got out of there safely, but from that point forward, she received many death threats.

Emma was blacklisted after that incident and she was forced to leave San Antonio. She moved to San Francisco instead and in 1952, she got her teacher's certificate. She then taught at Harlandale school in San Antonio once she was allowed back in Texas. In 1974, she graduated from Our Lady of the Lake University and received her Master's degree in Education. She retired in 1982.

Emma died on July 23, 1999, having established minimum wage for all workplaces nationally, among other achievements.




The WALL Writing Contest . . .


Below is the opening of a short story written by professor Rubén Sálaz Márquez,  The WALL.   After reading his short story which deals with issues of self-identity, I told Rubén, "I think I would have ended it differently, in fact it could have had many different endings."   That thought intrigued
Rubén and we decided to challenge our readers, and provoke some creative writing by having a contest.   

We invite everyone to read the short story and write a different ending at the point that the door opens: "At that moment the door was flung open . ."  

Your ending can be serious, funny, weird . .   whatever, philosophical statement you want to make on the subject of diversity within the Spanish language/heritage community.  Last month we had lots of articles on the issues of self-identity.   

The complete text is at   Locate The Wall in the Table of Contents and click to it.  

We will publish the submission in the May issue, so please send them by the 3rd week of April.  
If you are an instructor, professor, or teacher you might consider this as an assignment for understanding diversity within the broad Hispanic community.   If we are inundated (which would be nice), we will set up a separate web page,  so be assured that everyone's submission will be included. 

                                                               The WALL

The four men in the dingy room merely sat and looked disinterestedly at each other for a while. Then one of them said, "Maybe its time to get out of this joint." Everyone turned to him, nodding gently in agreement.

"I'll drink to that," replied the tall guy standing toward the corner.

"I can think of a few things I'd like to do," added the gentleman on the bunk.

"The time for thinking is passed. Now we need Chicano action," said the first speaker.

"OK, go to it," challenged the tall guy. "You’re the man, shorty."

"Cut it, you guys," cautioned the man by the window.

"What's the matter, are we disturbing your siesta?" challenged the Chicano.

"Naw, I can sleep through anything," returned the window man, slightly annoyed.

"That's the problem," blasted the short guy. "We've been asleep too long. That’s why we’re in here. Chicanos are the only ones who have awakened."

"Haven't you learned anything yet?" challenged the guy by the window.

"Yeah, a long time ago. What's your excuse?"

"I don't need one, I know who I am."

"Isn't that wonderful," chortled the Chicano. "Don't tell me, I'll bet you're a Hispanic," he ridiculed, "beloved of everything pink."

"I'm Latino," he answered. "What's it to you?"  Go to:

What to Call Ourselves is Personal 

February 2, 2005

Hi Mimi, I love your site and I wish I knew how to get more from it--I e-mail info out of Chihuahua but and this may sound like a petty question---BUT I would love to know how the word 'Chicano' went from a word that if used when I was a girl just got you used as a mop on the floor which you stood -to being acceptable. I don't understand some of the words that are now acceptable-one calling each other the word that sounds like 'coal' in Spanish--another as the majority of us have roots in Spain or Mexico we are O.K. with being called Latinos-( Latin America) or Hispanics ( Hispanola)  Why have we allowed ourselves to be grouped in 2 small words of heritage. If we are Puerto Ricans--be a proud Puerto Rican,. The same goes for Spaniards, Cubans, Colombians, Mexicans etc. Have we become so jaded that we are ashamed of our heritage and our ancestors ?  ME ? I am Spanish and French with a Basque Heritage and proud of it and of my ancestors. I mark ' other' or write in my race. Let those who read the form figure it out. Let them learn we all have different beginnings.   Paula Wakefield nee Trujillo

Hi Paula . . . .  That is the whole point!!  We are letting other people tell us who we are and what we are to be called.  We need to say who we are with conviction and confidence AND pride.  It is the media which has caused confusion, and we've added to it by not standing up and saying,  "you want to know who I am, I will tell you."  That is the reason, I put in 40-60 hours a week promoting our heritage in a broad, inclusive, manner . . .   it has to be done, or our young people will suffer the consequence of not knowing who they are. . .

For more research on Chihuahua do a keyword search . .
Then contact the people who wrote the articles.  They will respond. 
May I use your letter in an upcoming issue?  Regards, Mimi

Hi Mimi, Yes you may use what I wrote I am not ashamed of who I am or what I have said. I just really dislike being spoken to--with a strained patient voice telling me why I am to be called Hispanic or Latino. I'm always polite, I listen and never interrupt and when asked "do you understand?" I say -yes sir/maam--but I am Spanish and French  with a Basque heritage. I have been tempted at times to really play with their minds and say--oh by the way I also am of Greek & Portuguese heritage. This has caused a lot of frustration on others  but as I said--I am Paula Juanita Wakefield nee Trujillo--I am Spanish and French of Basque heritage.  
Thanks for the tip on how to get info out of Chihuahua-   Paula

Latino group sets out to mend inner divide 
Yvonne Wingett
The Arizona Republic, Feb. 2, 2005 

Arizona's Latino leaders suffer from an identity crisis that has prevented the state's largest minority from making gains in education, housing and politics, say some, who blame widening generation gaps and weakening cultural bonds. 

The numbers say Hispanics are poised to become a powerful social and political force here and throughout the nation. What stands in their way, some believe: themselves.
"There seems to be a lack of understanding within our own culture," says Mario E. Diaz, a Hispanic leader and political consultant. "We seem to be in our own silos. We all have the same objective: to succeed. But there's this wall between us, (between) the person who has been living in this country for years and the one who just moved here. We need to break down those barriers." 

The personal and political divisions among the Valley's educated and affluent Hispanics are rarely discussed in public, although they are quietly acknowledged in some of the Valley's most influential circles. But now, faced with what they perceive as anti-Hispanic sentiments from lawmakers and voters, some are putting party alliances and cultural differences aside. 

Hundreds of Latinos meet today in downtown Phoenix to launch an organization, the Arizona Latino Research Enterprise that will seek to answer a fundamental but perplexing question: Who are we? 

Los Angeles City Councilman Antonio Villaraigosa, the top Hispanic electoral hope to lead LA, will address the 11:30 a.m. luncheon at the Wyndham Hotel. 

Members of the group will spend the year clarifying where Hispanics stand on a wide range of issues through research, polling and a town hall. They hope it leads to a greater awareness of the varied Latino communities, their nuances and ways to advance key issues from education to business and immigration.The attempt at self-definition comes at a critical time for younger Hispanic adults. Those younger than 40 are well positioned to lead but struggle with where they fit in and how to bridge the division between generations, say Diaz and Sal Rivera, founders of the group. The move also comes as they face an "anti-Latino" legislative agenda, a proposed English-only state and possibly a more restrictive version of Protect Arizona Now. 

At stake: improved public schools, housing, health services and political clout for the state's Hispanics, who number 1.3 million, a figure that grows daily. 

Their success, they say, depends on their ability to connect with those outside of their small, comfortable and ambitious cliques and reach the Latino who has been left out of the conversation. 

"This unspoken divide in our community is very real," said Alfredo Gutierrez, a Spanish-language talk-show host, longtime Chicano activist and former state senator and public-affairs consultant. "The crisis on top is, 'How do we fit into all of this? How do we not become irrelevant?' "

If numbers are an indication, they aren't irrelevant. The number of upper- to middle-class Hispanics in Arizona is growing and will only strengthen with the population's continued growth, demographers and experts say. A tremendous surge in spending power, around $20 billion in Arizona, paired with increased median household incomes, are indicators of progress, says Earl de Berge of the Phoenix-based Behavior Research Center. 

But that progress often comes at a demoralizing and divisive cultural cost. With the pressures and desires to become American, language and culture are left behind, oftentimes creating barriers with immigrants and first-generation Hispanics. They don't converse in the same language, don't relate to the same pop culture and their challenges are dramatically different. That rift, some say, has created the identity crisis.

The Arizona Latino Research Enterprise is a mechanism to resolve it, says Alex Hernandez, owner of a pipeline company.

The 31-year-old south Phoenix resident considers himself a "mainstream American." He's raising a family not far from where he grew up. He's active on the board for his kids' school. He's proud of the life he has built. He drives nice cars, lives in a beautiful house and says he's fortunate enough to be able to work hard. But with some Hispanics, the success has earned him the title of "sellout," he says. 

"You see it all the time," said Hernandez, who lives near Dobbins Road and 27th Avenue. "You start doing well, be the first one to go to school, and for your family, it's not the norm. It's the fear of us becoming something. (They look at us) as sellouts and trying to be White."

Reach the reporter at or (602) 444-4712.


Abstract: Alberto Gonzales
Raoul Lowery Contreras
February 14, 2005 

.". . breakthrough of incredible magnitude for Hispanic Americans . . "

"This is a breakthrough of incredible magnitude for Hispanic Americans and should not be diluted by partisan politics," said Florida Sen. Mel Martinez, the nation's first Cuban American senator," wrote the Los Angeles Times. 

Most of us don’t speak Spanish with a Texas accent, but we do appreciate the man who now is the Attorney General of the United States becoming, in fact, the first Hispanic American to be placed the Constitutional list of Presidential succession, ever.
Alberto Gonzalez, Attorney General of the United States, is a tiny but giant step in the long journey to the Presidency of the United States by someone with a Hispanic background who comes, like Attorney General Gonzalez, from poverty. 

Book Review by Lorenzo Candelaria  

Marco Portales' 'Latino Sun, Rising' falls on lack of supporting research.
A&M professor's look at politics of assimilation adds up to a lot of hot air 
Sent by Dick Trzaskoma
From the Austin American-Statesman

Marco Portales' "Latino Sun, Rising" is a collection of essays that lauds the Hispanic American experience. But this is not the typical celebration of the American melting pot. Hispanics, Portales claims, are a "parallel culture to mainstream America" that wants to be included without sacrificing its language or heritage. And by his lights, this is not something to be feared, but embraced. Portales wants Americans to accept Hispanics as we are: "family-centered and patriotic" individuals who have demonstrated a "commitment to improving the lives of their sons and daughters in the United States."

Portales' book arrives less than a year after Harvard professor Samuel P. Huntington threw a firebomb into the discussion of Hispanic assimilation. In last year's "Who Are We? The Challenges to America's National Identity," Huntington warned that the failure of Hispanics to assimilate will result in "a bifurcated America, with two languages, Spanish and English, and two cultures, Anglo-Protestant and Hispanic." Huntington advised Hispanics to abandon our native language, customs and traditional notions of Roman Catholicism for the core Anglo-Protestant culture he believes built this country. Drawing from social critiques within the Hispanic community, he reiterated the central "Hispanic traits" that in his opinion bode ill for the rest of the United States: "mistrust of people outside the family; lack of initiative, self-reliance and ambition; low priority for education; acceptance of poverty as a virtue necessary for entrance into heaven" and the often-parodied "mañana syndrome" of indefinite procrastination.

Huntington and Portales represent two highly polarized views in an important debate. But while Huntington presents his controversial case with copious research and clearly articulated arguments, Portales, who is a professor of English at Texas A&M University, does such an inadequate job of carrying his end that he inadvertently lends support to Huntington's point of view.

The most obvious problems with "Latino Sun, Rising" stem from Portales' choices of structure and narrative strategy. This is an introspective book, made up of 44 essays based on Portales' experiences. The title is inspired by the Aztec sun calendar that marks the dawning of new eras, and Portales extends the metaphor by arranging his essays into three sections corresponding to the positions of the sun throughout the day.

In "Sol Naciente" (morning sun), Portales reflects on his early years as a middle-class Hispanic growing up in the 1950s and '60s. In "Sol Ardiente" (the high burning sun of noontime), he reflects on his life as a parent and the challenges of transmitting a Hispanic identity to his children. Finally, in "Sol Radiante" (the full heat of the afternoon sun), he presents his views on public policy issues, including the hot buttons of affirmative action and bilingual education (both of which he supports), the North American Free Trade Agreement and the war in Iraq.

Unfortunately, only the book's first five essays develop coherent arguments. The rest of the time, Portales is more interested in waxing poetical over his insights than in using them to construct actual arguments. This refusal to reach out is accentuated by his curious choice of writing about serious matters in a laid-back, conversational style peppered with distracting barrio Spanglish.

The 22 essays grouped under "Sol Radiante: Public Policy Issues" are especially lackadaisical. In "War in Iraq," for example, Portales presents a "philosophical" take on our foreign entanglement by openly contemplating a tree in his back yard for three pages. After detailing the ordeal of trying to uproot the tree and failing, he concludes that the United States might have been better off leaving Iraq alone.

Portales doesn't do much better when the policy issues are closer to home. It is hard to understand how he can write so powerfully about the exploitation of Hispanic laborers by American and Canadian factories that operate on the U.S.-Mexico border and then turn around and refer to the infamous Bracero program as "enlightened." The Bracero program, which was created by the U.S. and Mexican governments in 1942, meant very low wages for Mexican workers and harmed people on both sides of the border. By the time the program was abandoned in 1964, the U.S. official charged with its oversight had described it as a system of "legalized slavery." Portales' blind spot might be explained by the fact that a store his father co-owned in the '40s and '50s relied on the patronage of migrant braceros.

But the greatest problem with "Latino Sun, Rising" is Portales's reluctance to suggest solutions to the many problems he discusses. In the essay "Aztec Reverie," Portales notes that readers of his previous book, "Crowding Out Latinos," "have since asked what my proposed solution is to improve the lives of Latinos. I have resisted an answer, waiting to see if people agree with the diagnosis or my interpretation of the past." In the muddied "Batos Locos" (which Portales never explains is colloquial Spanish for "Crazy Guys"), Portales asserts that Hispanics "need to sort out how we should be encouraging our young people to present themselves. The goal . . . increasingly ought to be to become more comfortable with ourselves as we grow and develop in the United States." That's a fine goal, but rather than suggest how to achieve it, Portales merely offers this conclusion: "What do you think reader?" In "A Realization and a Memory," Portales bluntly admits, "At this point, we have to wait, which I am very good at, to see where la raza community thinks it wants to go."

This is, unfortunately, an example of the very "mañana syndrome" that Huntington denounces. And in the new high-stakes debate over the role of Hispanics in the United States, this book-that-should-have-been plays too readily into the punch line of bringing a knife to a gunfight.

Yet Portales ultimately fails because his aim is flawed. "The goal of 'Latino Sun, Rising,' " he writes, "is to invite the world to recognize that there is a growing middle class of Mexican Americans in the United States with recognizable needs and hopes that are not insuperable if the rest of the American family helps." This notion of success that depends on the assistance of others diminishes Hispanics and will hardly resonate with a country that prides itself on rugged individualism and self-reliance. It is simply not the "American Way."

And quite frankly, it is not the "Mexican Way," either, as Portales should have learned from the braceros who frequented his father's store while they worked hard to make better lives for themselves. Indeed, Americans could learn more about the dreams and work ethic of Mexican Americans from those individuals than from any of the hopeful ruminations in "Latino Sun, Rising."

Lorenzo Candelaria is assistant professor of musicology and a faculty associate at the Center for Mexican American Studies at the University of Texas.

Chilling mystery: Why don't Mexicans read books?
By Ken Bensinger | Correspondent of The Christian Science Monitor , February 16, 2005
Sent by Charlie Erickson

MEXICO CITY - Cristina Woolrich looks across the crowded cafe to the small bookshop she runs, and sighs. "We have the best poetry section in town and we're going to get rid of it," she says. "We're going to have to eliminate almost everything if we want to survive."

For the past decade, The Pegaso bookstore, a cozy shrine to the printed word, has offered browsers free coffee, overstuffed leather sofas, and a wide-ranging literary selection. But now it's scaling back, ditching poetry and history, and keeping the few things that still sell - some novels and glossy art books. Pegaso, like many other Mexican bookstores, is on the verge of succumbing to a complicated crisis that threatens Mexico's book industry - one Ms. Woolrich says boils down to this: "Mexicans aren't reading."

Competitive pressures in a country where 3,000 copies sold makes a bestseller have pushed 4 out of every 10 bookstores in Mexicoout of business over the past 10 years, according to the Mexican Booksellers Association.

Meanwhile, from 2001 to 2004, roughly 10 percent of all publishers have shut down. And despite myriad efforts to encourage reading and thus increase book buying, the crisis shows no sign of abating.

Now, the desperate publishing industry has taken matters into its own hands. In the past month, a consortium of publishers, distributors, and bookstores has started a system of fixed prices. It's a radical - and possibly illegal - measure they hope will resuscitate the industry and transform Mexicointo a nation of book lovers.

"The fundamental problem is that there are few readers," says Jose Angel Quintanilla, president of the National Chamber of the Mexican Publishing Industry, which is holding meetings between publishers and booksellers to establish price controls. By boosting the number of bookstores and titles published, they aim to lower prices and increase reading. "There's no single thing that can instill this culture in Mexico. But a fixed price can help."

Despite having three times the population of Argentina, Mexicoproduces about 2,000 fewer titles each year. There are roughly 500 bookstores in Mexico, which translates into one for every 200,000 Mexicans, compared to a ratio of one to 35,000 in the USand one to 12,000 in Spain, according to the Mexican Booksellers Association. A recent UNESCO study revealed that Mexicans read on average just over two books per year, while Swedes finish that many every month.

The Mexican government has made great strides, reducing illiteracy to less than 8 percent, compared with around 20 percent two decades ago, placing it leagues ahead of Central American countries and even beyond Latin America's other economic powerhouse, Brazil. Yet it has had little success encouraging active reading.

Reading-stimulation programs have mostly failed. An experimental library in the Mexico Citysubway last year was shuttered after most of the books were stolen.

"Mexicosimply has never had a culture favorable to reading," says Elsa Ramirez, a library-studies researcher at the National Autonomous University of Mexico.

Which is why, says Ramon Cifuentes, director of book distributor Colofon, the publishing industry must do something.

In the past five years, large bookstores have pushed for lower wholesale prices - in some cases demanding discounts of more than 60 percent - in return for bigger orders. With that purchasing leverage, big bookstores can undercut prices at small stores, driving them out of business. Publishers, meanwhile, artificially inflate wholesale prices to make up for the deep discounts the big stores demand. The result is a shrinking pool of bookstores offering fewer titles at a higher price.

Moreover, price variations among bookstores can be huge. The new novel by Chilean-born author Roberto Bolaño, "2666," sells for 650 pesos ($58) at Un Lugar de la Mancha, an independent shop; at Gandhi, one of the largest chains, it can be had for 455 pesos ($40). But even that 43 percent savings is deceiving: In Argentina, with its larger concentration of readers, that same book can be had for the equivalent of $23.

Price fixing, say proponents, would help reduce wholesale prices across the board. Currently, bestsellers are relatively cheap, but prices for less popular books are sky high.

It's a system that's been successfully employed in a dozen countries in Europe, notably Franceand Spain, both of which suffered from bookstore closures before installing fixed prices. In both cases, the publishing industries enjoyed huge growth.

"Fixed prices are the only thing that prevents small bookstores and publishers from disappearing. Without them, there would be no variety, no specialization," Alfonso Otero, director of Fuentetaja, a bookstore in Madrid, says by phone.

But, some argue, the European countries already had a public predisposed to reading. "For the majority of Mexicans, bookstores are a completely alien place," says Jesus Anaya, editorial director at publishing house Grupo Planeta. Although more titles and lower prices would certainly appeal to current readers, he doubts they'll create new ones. "I'm not sure that waving a magic wand of fixed prices can bring this cadaver to life."

Moreover, there is a serious question about the legality of industry-imposed fixed prices. Like the US, Mexicohas antitrust laws to prevent price manipulation that hurt the consumer. Critics say it's anticompetitive.

One frequently cited case is El Sotano, one of Mexico's largest bookstore chains, which has so far refused to stop asking for big wholesale discounts. As a result, several publishers say they've stopped selling to El Sotano, which declined to comment on the situation.

In response to the legal questions, the publishing industry has written a fixed-price bill they hope to present to the Mexican Congress before April. Currently, editors and booksellers are making their case to key congressmen and senators.

Congressman Jose Antonio Cabello, secretary of the Culture Committee, supports the bill, but says it'll have to pass the competition and economy committees before coming to a vote. "We'll have to push very hard for this to have a chance," he says, adding that just one dissenting voice from the publishing industry or a consumer group could skunk the bill. And it could be years before a vote occurs.

Mexico's Federal Competition Commission, meanwhile, could halt industry efforts to establish fixed prices at any time.

Still, many in the industry see no other option. "This isn't just an economic question. It's really a question of culture," says Henoc de Santiago, president of the Mexican Booksellers Association, which argues that the industry's woes are severe enough to threaten its long-term survival.

"If we don't give books a certain degree of protection, bookstores will continue to disappear, prices will continue to rise. Without fixed prices, there may not be any more books to read."

AzA Gazette 

AzA Gazette is Azteca America's TVs monthly newsletter  8-page free online newsletter
Their new show La Academia will air February 27th and Fundacion Azteca America, the U.S. extension of the TV Azteca's non-profit organization, Fundacion Azteca, makes its Washington, debut in March in the Mexican Cultural Institute during an event that looks to bring together business, government, opinion makers, and community leaders.  The goal of Fundacion Azteca America is nutrition, education, and health issues that are revelent to the U.S. Hispanic community.

LATINHEAT:  Source for Latino Entertainment News and Information, since 1992
Latin Heat Newsletter.
Calendar focus seems Southern California, but national conferences and events are also included.
George Lopez
not only has his own ABC sit-com, but his stand-up career is alive and well. He has been the center of attention on a number of Comedy Central specials, but the most recent became a major hit for the cable-net. George Lopez: Why U Crying? Broadcast on Sunday, January 30, and generated stunning numbers, especially among adults 18 – 49 (1.5). It scored as the highest-rated and most-watched Comedy Central ‘cast of the year – an 85% increase, year-to-year, for that all-important demographic.

MCDONALD'S AND AIM TEAM UP FOR PROGRAMMINGBeginning in February, production and syndication company AIM Tell-A-Vision will be offering weekly segments on Latin entertainment, film, festivals, and DVDs on American Latino TV and LatiNation, all sponsored by McDonald's.

McDonald's Cine on American Latino, a weekly segment on American Latino, will feature mainstream studio films and cinema from current releases to the classics with Latino themes, talent or storylines. McDonald's CineNation, a weekly segment on LatiNation, covers a wider range of film topics including independent cinema, film festivals, independent filmmakers and recent DVD titles and television programs. Both segments are produced by Maximás Productions, headed by Supervising Producer, Renzo Devia. Plans include a special, full-length episode on both American Latino TV and LatiNation devoted entirely to Latin cinema and entertainment to air later in the season.

"Our partnership with McDonald's allows us to produce segments that shine a light on the burgeoning Latino film industry and the very talented people in front of and behind the camera," stated Robert Rose, Executive Producer and CEO of AIM Tell-A-Vision. "We delve into this topic and address the impact these films have on U.S. and American Latino culture."

"!Siempre Mujer!"   New lifestyle magazine targets Hispanic women

By Mary Daniels
Chicago Tribune staff reporter
Published February 13, 2005,1,314843.
    Sent by:

Meredith Corp., publisher of Better Homes and Gardens, Ladies' Home Journal and More magazines, has announced it will launch its first lifestyle and shelter magazine for Hispanic women in September.

Editor in chief Johanna Buchholtz-Torres, who has 17 years experience in the Hispanic media market, will be responsible for creating editorial material for !Siempre Mujer! (Always A Woman).

The new magazine, which will be published every other month, is being positioned to address the growing marketplace of Hispanic women and homeowners.

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, says Buchholtz-Torres, "within the next 10 years, one in five new homeowners will be Hispanic." The Hispanic market currently represents $600 billion in spending power, a figure that will grow to $1 trillion by 2010, Meredith Corp. says.

There will be a newsstand component for "!Siempre Mujer!," she says. But in the main, Meredith, one of the nation's leading media and marketing companies, will extend its marketing alliance with Home Interiors & Gifts Inc. to launch the new publication.

Home Interiors currently develops and markets a line of home decor products under the Better Homes and Gardens brand name.

This alliance will use the 30,000-member Hispanic segment of the Home Interiors sales force to sell subscriptions to !Siempre Mujer! directly to Hispanic women in the U.S., Puerto Rico, Mexico and Canada.

The magazine will address the challenges Hispanic women face in trying to preserve their heritage and culture, Buchholtz-Torres says. "In many ways, I have experienced it myself," says Buchholtz-Torres, who was born and raised in Puerto Rico and now lives in Long Island, N.Y.

"To me, my Puerto Rican culture is very important. The idea is trying to get the best of both worlds without losing your identity. . . . As part of this country, we want to embrace the opportunities that are here. It is all a matter of being able to make that balance."

"Home interiors will be one of the most exciting parts of this project," she says of the new magazine. There are not a lot of Spanish magazines, and not a lot of tools for the Hispanic woman in this area.  "Addressing home interior issues is very important," she adds.  "We will highlight some homes, but in the context of before and after. [We'll] give a lot of tips [on] how to decorate a room cheaply, make the best of small spaces."


Breast Cancer in Latina Women

GOOD NEWS:  Latinas have a low prevalence of breast cancer because they tend to smoke less, drink less, and eat healthier. Other factors that protect Latinas and make them less at risk of getting cancer are early and multiple pregnancies, and low dietary fat intake. Latinas also have the lowest rates of breast cancer among other minority groups including Whites. Only 70 per 100,000 Hispanic women per year get breast cancer.

BAD NEWS: Although Latinas are less likely to get breast cancer, when they do get it they are more likely to die from it because they tend to be diagnosed at later stages, when the cancer is harder to combat. 

Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among Hispanic American/Latina women. 

Hispanic whites are more likely to be diagnosed with tumors that are more advanced than are non-Hispanic whites and Asian/Pacific Islanders. 

Women of Mexican, South and Central American, and Puerto Rican descent are 20% to 260% more likely to be diagnosed with late-stage breast cancer when compared to non-Hispanic women. 

When looking at breast cancer treatment, Puerto Rican women fare the worst, as they are 50% more likely to receive poor, inappropriate treatment. And Mexican women have 30% poorer survival rates when compared to non-Hispanic whites.

[[ This information is being shared as a special request from Angelita Garmondez. After reading Angelita's very sad letter, I got on the internet and found the above facts.  I know you will be moved deeply by the love that Angelita feels in wanting to warn everyone . . .]]    

"Mimi, I would like to ask a very special favor of you? I had cancer almost three year's ago. I had surgery and the Doctor told me then, we got all your cancer! I believed him (them). I was given chemotherapy and radiation and took pills that I had to take for five years.   I was told one of the side effects was I could have a fatal heart attack. But I did every thing I was told by all the doctor's I believed them! But since I had surgery I have never felt as before. I feel weak all the time.  Whenever I did housework or walked a bit I would get so tired;  that's one of the reasons I only wrote a few words whenever you are anybody would e-mail me. 

I would always tell my cancer Doctor that I didn't feel well.  He would send me for a lot of tests and say everything was O.K.  He would say to me,  it was because of all the nerves that where cut, that's why I felt this pain.  

Some times I would not tell him how I felt because I already knew what his answer would be (cut nerves) . About four weeks ago I knew I had cancer again, so I told my daughter make an appointment with my cancer Doctor so she did.   A few days later I was at the Doctor's and told him I have a lump on my breast, he sent me for a mammogram and sonogram, then to the Doctor that did my surgery. 

He did a biopsy last Friday, This Tuesday he told me yes you have cancer! I asked him how long have I had.  It has been over two years he said. Maybe since the surgery or maybe right after you had your last treatment of chemo. So what was the use of going to the cancer Doctor, when he didn't do his job.
Mimi the point of this, is how do I tell the women out there, don't just take the word of a Doctor, he hears you "but does not listen to what you are saying" go to another Doctor.  There is always one that will listen to you. If you feel something is not right, do something about it don't put you're hold trust in him (Doctor), "BECAUSE ITS YOUR LIFE"   You have to go with what you feel.
Thanks Angelita,

Illegal Immigrants Rarely Use Hard-Won Tuition Break
Chronicle of Higher Education: Government and Politics
From the issue dated December 10, 2004
Sent by Rafael Ojeda

Some states offer in-state rates, but students still have trouble paying.  Most high-school students sign up for Advanced Placement classes to get a head start in college course work. For Rodolfo Salazar, they were a substitute for a college education he feared was out of his reach.

As an illegal immigrant, Mr. Salazar -- who was born in Mexico and crossed the border with his family shortly before his 10th birthday -- could not qualify for in-state tuition rates or student aid in Texas, where he earned solid grades at Houston's Lee High School. And his mother, a janitor, could not afford out-of-state tuition, which was triple that paid by Texas residents.

"I wanted to make the most of my experience," says Mr. Salazar, now a soft-spoken 21-year-old. Taking the AP classes "made me feel a little less rejected."

Fortunately for Mr. Salazar, in June 2001, just as he was graduating from high school, the Texas Legislature passed a law extending in-state tuition benefits to illegal immigrants who had attended a high school in the state for at least three years, provided they signed an affidavit pledging to seek permanent residency. The reduced tuition and a pair of scholarships made it possible for Mr. Salazar to attend the University of Houston, where he is now a junior majoring in business.

Since Texas became the first state to provide in-state tuition benefits to its high-school graduates who are not legal residents, seven other states, including Illinois and New York, have passed similar laws. The issue has been the topic of debate in recent years in 21 additional state legislatures, as well as in Congress.

While supporters of the measures say they open the doors of higher education to those who need it most, critics argue that the policies are a giveaway of taxpayer dollars. Indeed in Kansas, the most recent state to enact the in-state-tuition legislation, opponents have filed a lawsuit charging that it violates the equal-protection clause of the 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, as well as a 1996 immigration law.

But lost within the rancor is the simple fact that few students who qualify for the lower tuition rates are actually taking advantage of them. In some cases, immigrant students lack the academic preparation needed for college. In others, even the in-state tuition rate is too high for such students, and financial-aid programs are still largely closed off to them. What's more, many illegal immigrants are simply unaware of the programs.

Only about 30 illegal immigrants registered for resident tuition at Kansas institutions this fall, far short of the 370 anticipated. Of the 348 students taking advantage of Washington's cheaper fees this semester, nearly one-third are international students on temporary visas. Texas seems to be the exception. Some 6,500 students have attended colleges through the law, though even the program there got off to a slow start.

"When these laws were being debated, a lot of the opponents spun a doomsday scenario in which state universities would be inundated with illegal immigrants sucking money out of the state treasury," says Travis J. Reindl, director of state policy analysis at the American Association of State Colleges and Universities. "The experience is, if anything, demand for these programs is smaller than expected."

A Guide Is Needed

Like Mr. Salazar, Gabriel (who asked that his last name not be used because he fears repercussions if he publicly reveals his immigration status) thought Lee High School would be the end of his academic career. Then one day David Johnston, the school's college counselor, cornered him between classes. He wanted to know why Gabriel, now 21, had not taken the SAT.

"I really believed there was no option," says Gabriel, who came to the United States from Mexico City as a toddler. Like many immigrant students, he has been waiting for years -- in his case since before the 2001 terrorist attacks -- for his legal-residency application to work through the federal backlog.

Today Gabriel is a sophomore majoring in social work at Texas Southern University. He is one of many improbable success stories at Lee, an inner-city high school where 95 percent of the 2,100 students receive free or reduced-cost lunches. A quarter are illegal immigrants, whose families crossed the border without documents or overstayed a visa. Ninety-four percent are members of minority groups. Last year 23 percent of Mr. Johnston's seniors went on to a four-year college; an additional 31 percent headed for a community or technical college.

Undocumented immigrants have been a presence in American schools since the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in 1982, in Plyler v. Doe, that all children, regardless of immigration status, were entitled to a free elementary and secondary education.

Profiles of Every Senior

The next generation fills Mr. Johnston's counseling center, researching college options or refining admissions essays on a half-dozen computers.

To make higher education a reality for as many of Lee's students as possible, Mr. Johnston compiles extensive profiles of each senior, including academic standing, financial means, and immigration status. He is, in his own word, "creative" in devising ways for Lee's graduates to go on to college. A future teacher may be directed to cosmetology school, a moneymaking detour that will make four-year college financially feasible one day. Hispanic students, who make up 77 percent of Lee's student body, may end up at historically black colleges, which are eager to bestow full scholarships on Mr. Johnston's academic superstars.

"I tell them there are many, many doors that all go to the same room -- college," he says.

These days, when Mr. Johnston's telephone rings, the parents and teachers on the other end of the line are often from high schools hundreds of miles from Houston seeking advice on Texas' tuition break for illegal immigrants. Mr. Johnston's expertise in the law is known through his effort to put the legislation into place and through interviews he has given to the state's Spanish-language news media. Both Mr. Johnston and his counterpart in the Austin school district, Alejandra Rincon, say that even three years after the measure became law, eligible students, particularly in rural districts, are failing to take advantage of the benefit. Many simply don't know it exists; those who do lack an informed guide. "Those students are going unserved," Ms. Rincon says. Navigating the admissions and financial-aid process for illegal immigrants "requires some knowledge," she says. "It requires more work."

In Texas and the other seven states, outreach has been on an ad hoc basis. Information is featured prominently in the admissions material of some colleges and in the fine print of others. In many instances, nonprofit organizations, like Kansas City's El Centro social-service group, have taken the lead, reaching out to high-school guidance counselors, college recruiters, and religious congregations.

And while some institutions, like Oklahoma City Community College, are focusing on students in middle school or younger in their recruitment efforts, staff members at other institutions, like the administrator at one Texas college who initially refused to provide in-state tuition to a student because he lacked proper immigration documents, remain unversed in the laws.

"It can be a challenge for those people on the front lines," says Rose Ann Blanco, director of the Houston branch of an educational-service center run by the League of United Latin American Citizens, a civil-rights group.

Other Obstacles

Immigration status isn't the only obstacle for these students. Even with reduced tuition rates, a college education may be unattainable for families trying to get by on minimum-wage jobs. Federal law forbids illegal immigrant students from receiving federal loans and grants; work-study jobs are also out of the question.

Of the eight states with in-state tuition laws on their books, only two, Texas and Oklahoma, offer state financial aid to illegal immigrants. A third, Utah, allows the students to qualify for only one of its aid programs.

Because of their lower cost, community colleges tend to far outpace four-year institutions in enrolling undocumented immigrants. Twenty-two of the 30 students enrolled this fall under Kansas' new law are attending two-year colleges. In Texas, where a credit hour costs $33 at a community college and $106 at a four-year university, more than 75 percent of the illegal immigrant students taking advantage of the tuition break attend the two-year programs. "Realistically, tuition is still very high," says Sue Storm, a Democrat in the Kansas House of Representatives who sponsored the state's law.

And thinking a college education was out of their reach, many of these students are academically unprepared for college, higher-education officials say. They have not taken classes like calculus, and many attend poor, understaffed urban schools that do not offer the variety of AP courses of their suburban counterparts. "They have what I would call built-in headwinds that militate against going to college," says Michael A. Olivas, a University of Houston law professor who helped write the Texas law.

Concern Over Privacy

In some states, specific provisions in the laws may depress enrollment. Oklahoma, for instance, collects data on undocumented immigrant students, and college officials say that discourages some eligible students from applying to college for fear of publicly revealing their status.

State officials say the data will be used only to monitor the success of the law. Still, Gloria Cardenas Barton, registrar and dean of admissions at Oklahoma City Community College, admits to some unease as she separates the roughly 85 qualifying immigrant students into a distinct category in the college computer system. "It's an uncomfortable process, openly identifying students whose status is not legal," she says. "I feel a certain guardianship of the records."

Those fears are not without basis. In 2002, after Jesus Apodaca, an 18-year-old illegal immigrant from Colorado, was quoted in a newspaper article about the fight for in-state tuition benefits there, U.S. Rep. Thomas G. Tancredo, a Republican, tried to have Mr. Apodaca and his family deported.

Partly in response to the Apodaca case, Colorado's General Assembly earlier this year considered legislation blocking public colleges from charging in-state tuition to students in the state illegally. Although the Colorado bill died, there seems to be a push back to offering resident tuition to illegal immigrants in other states.

In addition to the Kansas court challenge, some Arizona lawmakers hope to build on the success of a recent ballot initiative that denies public benefits to illegal immigrants by promoting legislation to block the state from offering college tuition breaks. The California Republican Assembly, a conservative organization, is working to collect enough signatures to put a proposition on the ballot prohibiting people not in that state legally from qualifying for any government aid. "It's a twisted system that gives a benefit to someone who breaks the law," Mike Spence, the group's president, says of California's in-state-tuition law.

Waiting on Congress

Even so, the majority of the 21 states that have considered resident-tuition measures have recently sought to extend the benefit to illegal immigrants. Only two states, Mississippi and Alaska, have forbidden public colleges from spending state funds on tuition benefits for immigrants without legal documents. (One other state, Virginia, passed legislation prohibiting illegal immigrants from receiving resident tuition, but it was vetoed by Gov. Mark R. Warner, a Democrat.)

While in-state tuition proposals that deal with immigrant students are likely to be introduced again when legislatures convene early next year, many states are waiting for action by the federal government. Congress recessed this year without taking action on the Development, Relief, and Education for Alien Minors, known as the Dream Act, which would make students who live in the country for at least five years eligible for federal student aid. States would have the option to provide in-state tuition benefits under the proposal.

Most critically, the Dream Act would permit qualified students to become temporary legal residents, putting them on the path to permanent legal status.

The Dream Act's sponsor, Sen. Orrin G. Hatch, Republican of Utah, is expected to reintroduce the measure next year, but it is unclear how the legislation will fare. Groups on both sides are waiting to see how the Bush administration, which has been publicly silent, weighs in on the bill.

Unless the Dream Act is passed, illegal immigrant students and their families are making "a leap of faith," says Josh Bernstein, a senior policy analyst at the National Immigration Law Center. With no certainty of legal status after graduation, many immigrant parents may be hesitant to pay even reduced tuition to send their children to college. Despite a college degree, they could end up back where they began, working in the underground economy because private companies rarely hire illegal immigrants.

Mr. Salazar, the University of Houston student, will be among the first classes of students to graduate under Texas' resident-tuition law. But he knows his dreams of starting an investment club may have to be put on hold.

"I'm not pessimistic, but I try to be realistic," Mr. Salazar says. "What if the Dream Act doesn't pass? I'm going to be left holding a diploma."  He pauses. "But it won't be a waste. What I'm getting is invaluable."

Real ID A Real Distraction: Now Let's Move on to Effective Border Security, 
Immigration Enforcement, and Comprehensive Reform Article's summary 
By Immigration Forum

We cannot have meaningful border security without comprehensive reform of our immigration laws.  We should create legal avenues to match employers with employees and to unite families separated by borders.  The goal should be to create incentives to play by the rules, vet all those coming rather than just some, and create disincentives to coming illegally, employing people under the table, and driving employment, immigration, and documentation into the black market.  Furthermore, our system must address those millions of people who are here, living, working, and raising their families amongst us who have no way of gaining legal status or fully participating in society.

Comprehensive immigration reform will replace the deadly, chaotic and illegal flow, with tightly regulated, safe, and orderly migration within realistic laws and limits.  It will provide incentives for those currently living underground to make themselves known and participate in America’s future above ground.  Then our border security and law enforcement assets can be employed to identify, keep out, or deport those who could actually do us harm.

Changing school with the season
By Teresa Méndez | Staff writer of The Christian Science Monitor, February 15, 2005
Sent by Howard Shorr

Nearly 1 million migrant students -  inch their way out of the shadows in US classrooms.

GRANDVIEW, WASH. – Twice her family has made the journey from Ciudad Juárez, on the Mexican border, through Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, and Oregon, to settle in eastern Washington's verdant Yakima Valley. 

The first time, back in 2001, they came so Marie's husband, a migrant farm worker, could harvest hops - the bitter plants used to make beer. Last year they came again looking for work. And in this town of 8,000, nestled in the foothills of the Cascade Mountains, they began picking apples.

It took five days for the family of seven - Marie, her husband, Armando, and their five children - to reach Grandview. They'd planned to drive straight through, but ran out of money along the way. Each night, they slept together in their silver minivan.

Now they describe it as an adventure: Christina, the oldest, dubbed the van their "five-star hotel." Marie remembers glimpsing the Hoover Dam. Press just a little, though, and Marie will admit that enduring a trip of more than 1,500 miles, even twice, has been two times too many for both her and her children.

It's a passage that hundreds of thousands of migrant families make round-trip year after year. Armando is just one of more than a million farm workers who move as crops ripen and seasons turn. 

But for Marie, ya basta. Enough. "I don't plan on moving no more," she says, her round face turning uncharacteristically somber. "My kids suffered the most, and that's not fair."  Marie completed elementary and high school in the small Texas town where she was born. She hopes to give her children the same opportunity.

Because Armando is an illegal immigrant, he and Marie asked that their last names not be used in this article. About half of the country's migrant farm workers are undocumented. Marie and four of their children are US citizens.

Children of migrant farm workers like Christina, Jorge, Raul, Mickaela, and Juana occupy a shadowy place in the education landscape. As they slip between schools and states their progress - and setbacks - are extremely difficult to gauge.

"Migrant kids are often the forgotten kids," says Roger Rosenthal, executive director of the Migrant Legal Action Program in Washington, D.C., who for more than 25 years has worked as an advocate for migrant children.

They have been called an "invisible minority." Hard to identify, obscured within another struggling yet more prominent demographic - impoverished Latinos - migrant students face the same obstacles as other low-income minority children. According to the Labor Department's National Agricultural Workers Survey, their families earn less than $10,000 a year. On average, farm workers have six years of formal education. Most don't speak English.

But migrants must also grapple with farm injuries and pesticide exposure; juggle school work with field work; and learn to navigate a world that is constantly in motion. With each interruption to their schooling, they risk falling behind. Just one move can increase the likelihood that a student will drop out or repeat a grade, studies show.

In his 1960 documentary "Harvest of Shame," chronicling the plight of migrant workers, Edward R. Murrow suggested that the US government was better at counting migratory birds than migrant farm workers. It's an aphorism that applies to migrant students as well. Data on everything from their numbers to dropout and graduation rates are often rough, or culled from antiquated research.

"They're a subpopulation that really isn't studied because they're a marginalized population," says Roberto Treviño, a professor at the University of North Texas in Denton, whose research focuses on achievement in low-income Latino students. "They're off on the fringes."

With states now required by federal law to track and report how historically ignored groups of students - including migrants - fare in such areas as reading and math, this is sure to change. But will it also translate to a fuller education for America's nearly 900,000 migrant students? While schools may be taking more note of the migrants in their midst, the same laws that require better tracking urge tougher academic standards - without necessarily creating additional support for a vulnerable group already struggling to keep up.

It's a sunny day in Grandview, crisp and pleasant. Bright wooden cutouts of fruit lining the main drag hint at just how entwined this town's identity is with agriculture. A faint smell of manure wafts through the streets.

In the fall, Marie and Armando's five children were spread between three schools. Grandview has six schools serving about 3,000 students, 550 of whom are migrant.

By many measures, they are adjusting well. Christina's transition into ninth grade has been smooth. In a room redolent of melting butter, her home economics teacher notes that the entire freshman class is, after all, new to Grandview High School. Besides, the faculty and students are familiar with families cycling in and out.

Jorge - the family "inventor" - is thriving in sixth-grade science. On this Tuesday, he's the first to connect a battery, compass, and light bulb to test electromagnetic strength.

Raul's second-grade teacher feels comfortable seating him at the back of the room. He's "a strong student," she says, able to concentrate through rows of distractions.  At recess, Mickaela twirls a jump-rope as a gaggle of second-grade girls, ponytails flying, runs through.

And Juana, liquid eyes framed by wispy strands of dark hair escaped from her braid, shyly professes to love homework. She blends easily with her classmates at Smith Elementary, where fair-haired children are in the minority. In her dual-language first-grade class - the morning is conducted in English, the afternoon in Spanish - one blond boy sticks out in a sea of dark heads.

But there's a murkier side, too.  Becky Knott, her teacher, says that Juana rarely takes assignments home, and they don't always make it back. During her 15 years in Grandview, Mrs. Knott has seen countless migrant students filter through, many of whom, even at that young age, "come in low because they haven't been in one place long enough to learn anything." But with a supportive family and school, she says, they often "just zoom - they excel."

Mickaela and Raul are pulled out of class daily for ESL lessons. And at 8:40 every morning, Jorge joins a reading class for special-education students. Though he is clearly at the top of his class, impatient as his classmates struggle to sound out words - rugs, pop, stop, swimming - whispering answers to Sergio on his right, he reads at a first-grade level.

Twenty-four percent of the district's migrant students are a year behind grade level; 2 percent are two or more years behind, according to the state's Migrant Student Data and Recruitment Office. The 44,000 migrant students statewide are performing at about the same level.

Forty years have passed since the federal government, as part of President Johnson's Great Society program, promised to educate all children. The Migrant Education Program was created in 1966, at a time when just 1 in 10 migrant students finished high school. In the '80s, graduation rates reached about 50 percent - still one of the lowest for any group - where they hover today. President Bush signed the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) in 2002, reauthorizing Johnson's education law and reaffirming a commitment to all students, with a special pledge to poor and minority families.

And in places with year-round growing seasons, where rows of crops have long abutted school buildings, many districts are successfully addressing migrant students' needs. Even tiny Montana, with just 1,600 migrants, is held up as an example. But in other states, where their presence may be newer, or where fewer trickle through each year, many migrant students linger in the shadows.

Educators say that the goal of NCLB, to shine a light on subgroups such as "migrant" by scrutinizing their progress and holding districts and states accountable for their performance, is laudable. But, as with the law more broadly, it's the implementation that has drawn concern.

For one, as the migrant student population has grown over the past decade and costly computer technology has proven one of the most effective ways to support them, federal funding rose modestly - and actually decreased slightly to $393 million in 2004. "You have more kids and you're getting whacked by the inflation rate," says Richard Gómez Jr., president of the National Association of State Directors of Migrant Education and director of Washington's Migrant Education Program, which saw its migrant students increase by 10 percent.

Another fear is what a battery of high-stakes assessments, with more states requiring graduation exit exams, may do to an already fragile group of students. And for the roughly 50 percent who graduate, there's the looming question of how to pay for college. The cost can be prohibitive on a family's subsistence wages, and those who are not citizens might not qualify for loans or state tuition.

But the biggest challenge in serving migrant students has been keeping track of them. The federal Migrant Student Records Transfer System, founded in 1969, was considered a great achievement. Besides housing health and education records, it was credited with bigger feats, like ending measles outbreaks in migrant camps. In 1994, the system was abandoned and replaced by a web of state-run programs. Now, the Education Department is looking into ways to help states link their systems, and plans to have the Migrant Student Information Exchange in place within the next few years. But it may never be as wide-reaching as a centralized federal database.

Grandview became the state's first migrant education program in 1962. Today, Yolanda Magañas, the district's migrant-home visitor, serves more than 500 families. It was she who discovered Marie's family living in an abandoned camper, cooking and bathing at a nearby labor camp. The three-bedroom single-wide, set in the Granvilla Mobile Court, where Marie's family now lives, is an immeasurable improvement.

"We have a house," says Christina. "Like a 'house,' house. There's nothing missing for us here." At dusk, Armando, in cowboy boots and a baseball cap embroidered with the Virgin of Guadalupe, ducks outside to switch on a row of twinkly blue Christmas lights.

Ms. Magañas helped them find their new home and registered the children in the Migrant Education Program. Warm, with well-coiffed dark hair, she's lived in the Yakima Valley most of her life. Her parents were migrants from Texas.

Much of the credit for improving migrant students' lives belongs to people like Magañas, advocates and educators - many once migrants themselves - who truly grasp their needs. But beyond understanding the struggle and the stigma of farm work, beyond acting as translators between families and schools, they recognize the dignity and lessons of the migrant experience.

"These are powerful people," says Cinthia Salinas, a professor at the University of Texas, Austin, and editor of "Scholars in the Field: The Challenges of Migrant Education." "They coalesce around their family and their language. They take great pride in what they do."

Marie's family arrived in Grandview to orchards thick with fruit. For the few months before school started, the children climbed apple and pear trees to help their father. Though they grew tired and their hands cold, Raul and Jorge say it was fun - an adventure like their drive from Mexico.

But work dried up mid-December. For Armando this meant a sojourn in Nevada. Marie, resolute in her decision to stay, remained behind with their children.

Kevin Chase, superintendent of the Grandview School District, has witnessed 30 years of change in the Yakima Valley. There was a time when schools hired as many as five extra teachers to meet the spring influx of migrants - so many students, he says, they practically had their own school. Classes started as late as 10 a.m. - "asparagus time" - to accommodate farm work. Today there is less turnover each year, as families hoping for a steadier life for their children try to eke out a living here year round.

Like parents everywhere, Armando dreams of more for Christina, Jorge, Raul, Mickaela, and Juana. He wants them to finish high school, a luxury he never had. And one day, he says in Spanish, "I hope they have careers and are able to do better than I have, working in the fields."




Heraldica Escudos Tallados  
Apellido FALCON
Apellido TRUJILLO 

Surnames, Origin and History

Heraldica Escudos Tallados - Artimarmol
Modern and ancient recreations for home and office, include also heraldry.
Sent by Bill Carmena


Apellido FALCON

Noble linaje de Asturias (España) cuyo antiguo solar radicó en la villa de Avilés. Luis Gutiérrez Falcón, fue cazador mayor y gran privado del rey Juan II. Cuando el Emperador Carlos V desembarcó en Villaviciosa, fue a prestarle homenaje y darle la bienvenida en nombre de la villa de Aviles Pedro Falcón de Avilés, lo que indica claramente que era uno de los principales caballeros de la villa.

Sus armas son: Escudo de sinople y un castillo aclarado de azur con una doncella en la ventana, encima de la puerta y un halcón puesto en una lanza que sale del homenaje.  Los versos dicen:

Torre, doncella y falcon
     Sobre una lanza sentado,
De Falcones es blason, 
     En Avilés señalado.



Cuando husmeas en la historia de los apellidos, te encuentras con paginas de la historia que han pasado desapercibidas para el gran publico, pero que no por ello dejan de resultar interesantes.

Hace unos días encontré la historia del apellido Aguilera, con cuyo apelativo tengo varios amigos,  sentí curiosidad y esto es lo que averigüé:

Allá por el año 718 vino de Alemania, para ayudar a Don Pelayo en la reconquista de España, un distinguido guerrero que tenía por nombre Federico y que pronto intervino en las batallas cosechando triunfos y renombre por sus proezas. Traía por divisa en su pendón y en la punta de su lanza, un águila, que recordaba su antigüedad ya que es la misma insignia que ostentaba Ciro, el rey de los persas.

Por esta circunstancia, al principio le llamaban "El Caballero del Águila", que después se convirtió en "Aguilera" y que fue el tronco de este linaje en España.

A su primer hijo le nombraron Pelayo de Aguilera y fue también muy reconocido por sus proezas de armas y los Aguilera se fueron extendiendo por toda la geografía, estableciéndose una de sus ramas en Jaén fundada por Ramiro de Aguilera, señor de Valduerna en el Reino de León, donde se casó con Francisca Flores de Guzmán.

Ramiro de Aguilera había venido como Capitán de Caballos a la conquista de Andalucía, asistiendo con San Fernando a las tomas de Sevilla, Córdoba, Andujar y Porcuna, quedando en esta última población como Alcalde en 1245.

Son descendiente de esta familia, Mencía de Aguilera que se casó con el primera Conde de Cabra; Bernardo de Aguilera, caballero templario que fue el que fundó la cofradía de Nuestra Señora de la Nobleza, en Andujar; Mariana de Aguilera que fundó un monasterio de religiosas en Porcuna; Pedro Olmos de Aguilera, maestre de campo en el Arauco en Chile, de quien descienden los marqueses de Valparaíso; Jerónimo Ramírez de Aguilera, Capitán General de la Isla Canarias y Pedro de Aguilera, capitán de caballos en Flandes y del consejo de la hija de Felipe II, la Infanta Isabel Clara Eugenia.

He procurado aportar los datos que poseo, ahora resta que cada persona que tenga ese apellido intente averiguar por donde le llegó ese nombre, algo que le puede resultar muy interesante.

                                            Ángel Custodio Rebollo.


Apellido TRUJILLO 

Hace unos días y para documentarme para escribir un articulo, estuve indagando, en la medida de mis posibilidades, sobre el origen del apellido Trujillo o en caso de no conocer su origen, por lo menos saber como se estableció en Andalucía y transcribo lo poco que averigüé.

Al parecer el primero que llegó a nuestra región con ese apellido fue Gil de Trujillo, rico-hombre de Aragón, que no estaba conforme con el rey Don Ramiro "el Monje", y decidió establecerse en Jerez de la Frontera allá por el año 1135.

Hay autores que mantienen que el apellido vino a nuestra región de la mano de Juan de Trujillo, a quien el rey Alfonso IX, por privilegio de 24 de abril de 1191, cedió la ciudad de Trujillo, la de Santa Cruz y Zuferola. Juan de Trujillo era maestre de caballería, llevando por divisa una estrella de plata pendiente de una cadena, siendo esta divisa la que agregó el mismo rey en 1195 a la Orden de Calatrava.

Dejando aparte las diferentes opiniones, creemos que además de los caballeros que se establecieron en Jerez, pasaron a las guerras de Andalucía, caballeros con ese apellido y procedentes del reino de Aragón que acompañaron al rey Don Fernando en la conquista de Sevilla, Sanlucar de Barrameda, Carmona y se establecieron sus descendientes por Conil, Córdoba, Baena, Antequera y Andujar.

Ya en tiempos de los Reyes Católicos, hubo Trujillos procedentes de las ramas andaluzas que pasaron a Tenerife, siendo algunos los primeros conquistadores y a los que se mencionan en la historia de aquella isla.

Fue importante la establecida en Antequera, siendo su cabeza visible Pedro de Trujillo, que estaba casado con Juana de Eslava y Alarcón y había ganado ejecutoria de nobleza. Otro punto importante fue en Conil, con Gonzalo Sánchez de Trujillo que se casó en 1588 con Ana Pérez .

Además de los establecidos en Andalucía, otras de este linaje se asentaron en Zurita, Palencia y Sigüenza, donde se dice fundaron grandes mayorazgos y piadosas instituciones.

Hay otra versión por parte de algunos genealogistas que opinan que el apellido Trujillo es oriundo de Portugal y tuvo por primitivo solar el lugar de Trujillo y lo trajo a Castilla  el hijo de Fernán García de Trujillo y Sancha Rodríguez, vecina de Mérida, que era García Fernández de Trujillo, maestre de la Orden de Santiago.
                                                                 Angel Custodio Rebollo


Spanish Surnames, Origin and History:
This is the English version of Tus Apellidos 
Sent by Bill Carmena

We provide you with a deep professional research into your family name: origin, meaning, geographical distribution, well-known persons, noble lineages, titles of nobility, and family coats of arms. With pictures and maps. We also offer to you genealogical and translation services.

The need for naming people is so ancient as the very man. When two or more people have the same name and it is possible to confuse them, they are distinguished by means of a last name or a nickname. For example, if there were two Martín in a medieval Castilian village, and one of them was son of García (a first ancient Spanish name) and the other son of Lope (Wolf), the first one might be named Martín García, and the second one Martín López (Wolfson). And if their fathers' name was the same and one of the Martín was left-handed, this one might be named Izquierdo (cf. Kay surname in Lancashire and Cheshire, England). About the formation of Spanish last names between 9th and 15th centuries, we refer you to our study "Surnames and Internal Migrations in the Reconquest Christian Spain" (342 kb, in Spanish; last update, 9/4/2004). It is an enlargement of our communication to the  Meeting on Hispanic Genealogy, prepared by Hispagen (Madrid, Spain, 20-21 June 2003).


Galvez Patriots

  Bernardo de Galvez Forum, Malaga, Spain  

We are pleased to announce that the Bernardo de Galvez Forum in Malaga, Spain is partnering with us in promoting the historical contributions of  the Spanish forces during the American Revolution. 

Secretary, Mario Robles del Moral has sent these pictures.  To the right is the Church of Macharaviaya.
Macharaviaya, is a picturesque village in the mountains of Andalucia in the south of Spain. In former times Macharaviaya had been an important place. It was well-known far beyond the regional borders for being the home of the noble Galvez family, whose descendant Matias Galvez, Earl of Galvez, had been vice-king of Nueva Espana. Macharaviaya is very near to the city of Málaga, located in the province of Málaga.

President of the Bernardo de Galvez Forum, 
Federico Souviron and his wife, Chomky.  Souviron is a National Deputy of Congress (Parliament) in Madrid.  He is serving his fourth term as an elected official. 
Mayka Lombán García and Lorenzo Rodríguez de
 la Peña are Forum members and Presidents of
the Regional Houses of Spain in Málaga. They  represent the people of other provinces that live in Málaga.

Mario Robles and his wife, Lenor.

Viewing the city  

 Mayka was born in La Coruña (Community of Galicia (Celtic), North-West of Spain).  Lorenzo Rodríguez de la Peña was born in Burgos (Comunnity of Castilla y León. North-Center)


                   Abstract from: City of Malaga website:
          Sent by Angel Custodio Rebollo 
A escasos metros nos encontraremos con el Palacio de los Gálvez de Macharaviaya, fundadores de la ciudad de Galvestown en Florida, y la antigua bodega del Pimpi, del siglo XIX, centro de reunión de poetas donde se puede degustar los vinos de Málaga.   A la izquierda está la calle de San Agustín, y por la que llegamos al antiguo Palacio de los Condes de Buenavista, construcción del siglo XVI, de traza renacentista, y sede del Museo Picasso.  Continuando por la calle de San Agustín, nos dirigiremos hacia la Plaza del Obispo, desde la que podremos contemplar la fachada principal de la Catedral (siglo XVI) y el Palacio Episcopal (siglo XVIII), hoy sala de exposiciones.  De la Catedral destacamos su exuberante fachada barroca de la Plaza del Obispo (siglo XVIII) y su solemne interior renacentista (siglo XVI), así como la Sillería del Coro tallado por Luis Ortiz, José Micael Alfaro y Pedro de Mena y Medrano, obra maestra de la escultura barroca de nuestro país.  Desde la Plaza del Obispo, y a través de la calle Fresca, llegamos al conocido Pasaje de Chinitas, donde radicaba el conocido Café de chinitas que recogió en sus poemas Federico García Lorca.   En este entorno y calles adyacentes se concentran una amplia oferta de mesones tradicionales y bares de tapeo.      

For current news in the city of Malaga:  La Opinion De



March 19:   Adela G. López, Ethnic Studies Instructor at Fullerton College 
                      “California Missions: An Alternative Perspective” 
Seeking Mexican-American Super Patriots Families
Marcos Nava promoted to Assistant Regional Director 
                      of Scoutreach for the Western Region

Welcome, Dr. Erlinda Martinez!
Congratulations to Carlos Lopez Dzur, journalist, poet, historian
Nuestro Condado Donan libros para promover la lectura




Society of Hispanic Historical and 
Ancestral Research

Proudly brings

Adela G. López

Ethnic Studies Department Coordinator
Fullerton College

"California Missions: 
An Alternative Perspective"   

Saturday, March 19, 2005
2:00 p.m.
Orange Family History Center
674 S. Yorba, Orange, CA
Information: 714-894-8161
Meetings are open to the public, No cost. 
Come early (1:30 p.m.) and enjoy networking !!


Remember the fourth grade?  California fourth-graders get introduced to the history of our state. For many, if not most, this means a trip to a California mission. The details of history, culture, or economies are somehow lost with the details and thrill of a field trip. Adela G. López assigns her students in her ethnic classes to re-visit a California mission or to visit a museum. She wants them to see the history of California from a different view. 

López is currently the Ethnic Studies Department Coordinator at Fullerton College where she has been teaching since 1973. Her teaching career began while she was still a graduate student at Cal State Long Beach where she received her master’s degree in Secondary Education: Curriculum and Instruction, Bilingual Emphasis. López has been active in her campus as well as district, serving on numerous committees and enlisting membership in professional boards and associations such as the National Conference on Race and Ethnicity. She has also been the recipient of special awards and recognitions, such as the Fullerton College Staff of Distinction Award for Teaching Excellence and Service to the Campus and Who’s Who Among Teachers in 1996, 2002 and 2004. More recently, López was awarded the Golden Apple 2004 by the Hispanic Education Endowment Fund (HEEF).

López will share her alternative perspectives on the California missions at the meeting of the Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research (SHHAR) on Saturday, March 19th, 2:00 pm. at the Orange Family History Center, 674 S. Yorba, Orange. The meeting is open to the public and there is no charge or fee.

This publication is dedicated to past and present articles, events and information concerning Hispanic heritage issues. The editorial focus of Somos Primos is to connect present day situations to its historical foundation. The goal is to awaken Latinos to the fact that we are walking in the footsteps of our ancestors. Whether that path is clear to our vision or not, we are in the midst of that road. It is imperative that we grasp the unique and individual part in world history, and especially United States history, that our grandparents walked. The contributions of our ancestors are important to understand the many social issues of today.  



Seeking Mexican-American Super Patriots Families

February 18, 2005

Dear Veteran,

On Saturday, November 12, 2005 our organization and California State University at Fullerton will host the 9th Annual Veterans Day Celebration: A Tribute to Mexican American Veterans of World War II. It will commence at 10:00 a.m. in the Pavilion of the Titan Student Union on the Fullerton campus. You and your family are cordially invited to attend. Admission is free and the public is also invited to attend.

This year we will recognize those "Super Patriot" families who had 3 or more brothers in World War II and the barrios and neighborhoods that gave more than their fair share. We have identified twenty families who had 3 or more brothers serving at the same time during the war. In fact we found four families with 6 brothers, one family with 7 brothers and one family with 8 brothers who served! We know that there are more 3+ Blue Star families and we need your assistance in documenting and honoring them. We also know that more than 240 Mexican Americans came out of the neighborhood surrounding La Purisima Church in East Los Angeles, that over 67 Mexican Americans came out of a 4 block area of Orange and that over 80 Mexican Americans came out of the small town of Placentia. Those numbers prove that we served at a higher number than our percentage of the population. Moreover, we know that most of them served in combat duty in the front lines. That patriotism must be documented and honored.

Last year we printed a book highlighting over 200 World War II Mexican American veterans. We published their full color photograph and briefly detailed their World War II service. This year our goal is to triple that number in our second edition of that book.

If you want to be acknowledged in our book this year you or a representative must be present at our event on November 12, 2005. Please go to our website: Please fill out the information form and send it with your World War II service photograph. Please do not send us the original of your photograph. Please take your photograph to a Kinkos or Wal Mart and make a duplicate photograph. We must have the form and photograph by July 31, 2005 in order to guarantee that you will be included in the book.

Very truly yours, Frederick P. Aguirre, 
President, Latino Advocates for Education, Inc.
P.O. Box 5846, Orange, CA 92863
(714) 225-2499

Currently, there are more than 85,000 Hispanic Americans on active duty, representing approximately 7 percent of all active duty personnel. 
Latinos represent over:  
11 percent of the Marine Corps 
8.1 percent of the Navy  
6.2 percent of the Army  
4.4 percent of the Air Force


Congratulations to Marcos Nava

Congratulations to Marcos Nava for his promotion to Assistant Regional Director of Scoutreach for the Western Region.  On February 9th, a large assembly of well-wishers gathered to wish Marcos well, as he starts a new life-style of travel.  He will be visiting throughout the Western Region, which goes from Texas to Hawaii. 

Marcos has provided great leadership and vision in his outreach to the Hispanic Community. In 1972, the first Hispanic troup was organized by Marcos in Orange County.  The troop successfully recruited 30 Hispanic Scouts.  The  program for Hispanic scouts has grown to over 3,000 youth in Orange County.  

Marcos has been very successful in community networking. Marcos Nava stands between friends, Gilberto Arteaga  (left, LDS Church) and John Palacios, Santa Ana Board of Education.

Two-for-one is a new program initiated and tested by Marcos in Orange County. Scouts joining a troop enroll in both the troop and membership onto a soccer team.  Two coaches,  Jesus Rodriguez and Arturo Saucedo, currently work directly with the scouts, organizing team competition and skills development.  His new assignment includes taking this program across the Western Region, developing and coordinating the leadership training to carrying on in bringing more Hispanics into the Scout program.

For more Orange County Council  information, contact: Rose Griffin at 714/546-4990 Ext. 115  
1211 E. Dyer Road,  Santa Ana, CA 92705



        Welcome, Dr. Erlinda Martinez!          

Erlinda Martinez, Ed.D., has been named president of Santa Ana College.  As leader of the 90-year-old institution, she will guide its development as a flagship community college in Southern California.  Reporting to the community college district chancellor, her responsibilities include planning, organizing, and implementing educational policy and procedures to develop curriculum and student support services, budget management, and leading the institution’s fund development efforts.  An Orange County resident, she will begin work at the college on March 14. 

Sent by Nellie Kaniski


I recently visited Puerto Rico and I was declared SOCIO HONORARIO  by  Ateneo Publishing,  San Sebastián, Puerto Rico, because of the many articles and books I have written in the history of that town and its people. "  Please click for more information.




Nuestro Condado Donan 
libros para promover la lectura

Más de 2 mil libros infantiles se recaudaron 
para dos programas del distrito escolar de Santa Ana 
Por Patricia Prieto
Excélsior del Condado de Orange

Sent by Gilberto Arteaga

Irvine.- Desprenderse de ellos no fue fácil. Sin embargo, después de leer y releer los libros infantiles que en fueron parte de su vida los últimos 16 años, los cuatro menores de la familia Arteaga de Irvine sacaron de sus libreros personales más de 80 libros para donarlos a escuelas de Santa Ana.

“Fue divertido recorrer por cada libro para ver si lo donaba o no”, comenta Rubén, de 9 años de edad y el menor de la familia. “Los únicos que no regalé fueron los de magia. Me gusta mucho la magia”.

“Yo me quedé con el primer libro que leí , “Miki’s New Bike”. Ese libro me lo aprendí de memoria”, apunta Jared, de 11 años de edad, mientras hojeaba cada página del que señaló ser su libro preferido.

“A mí si me costó mucho desprenderme de mis libros”, agrega Elizabeth, de 14 años, “porque cada libro tiene un recuerdo muy especial”.

“Pero bueno ya estuvieron mucho tiempo entre nosotros, sobre todo mis libros, que pasaron por todos mis hermanos”, concluye Raquel, de 16 años y la mayor de la familia.

Los libros de la familia Arteaga se unieron a los más de 2 mil libros que se recaudador el mes pasado con el propósito de promover la lectura entre los niños y jóvenes de los grupos minoritarios de Santa Ana.

“El hábito de la lectura es esencial en los niños”, precisa Lilia Arteaga, quien con su cuatro hijos y esposo, Gilberto, se dieron a la tarea de recoger los libros donados y categorizarlos por edad y grado escolar.

“A través de la lectura ellos aprenden, recorren el mundo, desarrollan la imaginación”, puntualiza Gilberto, explicando que la recaudación de los libros fue promovida por el Departamento Hispano de Relaciones Públicas de la Iglesia de Jesucristo de los Santos de los Últimos Días con motivo de la reciente visita del grupo Living Legends de la Universidad Brigham Young. 

Los libros recaudados serán donados al programa del Distrito Escolar Unificado de Santa Ana Outhreach Resource Specialistst Kinder-Readiness y al After School Program de la Elemental Remington.

“Con estos libros vamos a lograr uno de nuestros desafíos: llevar la lectura a todos los hogares de nuestros alumnos, quienes desafortunadamente no provienen de familias adineradas que pueden comprarles muchos libros para que lean”, comenta Rubén Acosta, coordinador del programa de la escuela Remington, que asiste a 100 menores que están “un poco bajos en su nivel escolar”.

Ivette Gálvez Medina, encargada del programa Kinder-Readiness del distrito escolar de Santa Ana, asegura que los libros serán muy aprovechados por las madres y niños que se quedan en los salones de su programa diariamente leyéndole a sus hijos de 10 a 15 minutos.

“Ahora sí que vamos a tener una gran variedad de libros”, resalta la consejera escolar y familiar del programa de prekinder, que abarca 17 grupos de niños y padres de familia de las escuelas Davis, Lincoln, Lowell, Pío Pico, King y Washington (entre otras), y del Cambodian Family Center.

llame al (714) 796-4302 o escriba a


San Fernando Hispanic Family History Conference, March 12
Living Legends, "Go My Son"
Baile Folklorico, March 18-20  
Martin Espino & PreHispanic Music 

Día A Día, celebró su XV Aniversario

Mainstream medicine is beginning to explore the aisles of botanicas

History Archive emerging From Its Own Difficult Past
PIO PICO, A Man of California: The Last Governor of Mexican California
CALIFORNIA, 1850-1860: Another Californio, Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo
Early Los Angeles Times articles,
Don Eulogio De Celis 
The new Chicano movement 



Southern California Stakes 
and Center for Family History & Genealogy at 
Brigham Young University hosting

San Fernando 
Hispanic Family History

"Learn How to Find Your Hispanic Ancestors"

MARCH 12, 9:30am-5:00pm

San Fernando Stake Center in Van Nuys
15555 Saticoy Ave. Van Nuys, CA 91406

-20 Free Classes -

  • How to Start Your Family History
  • Working with PAF
  • How to Help Patrons in the Family History Center
  • Country Specific Research– Mexico, Argentina, Brazil, Central America, Spain and Portugal
  • Internet Sites and Searches and more...

-To Register-
Teresa Andrade



Editor's comment:

On February 4th, I had such an wonderful experience, I just had to share.  I attended a performance by   Living Legends,  produced by the School of Music, College of Fine Arts and Communications, Brigham Young University at the Long Beach performing Art Center.  

It was a 2-hour performance that felt like half an hour.  The professionalism, pace, authentic choreography, intricate costumes, vitality, color, and joy was fantastic.  It was a celebration of Latin American, Native American, and Polynesian song and dance, performed by talented descendents of these cultures. 

A friend, a BYU alumni, Tammy Young Ravsten  accompany me. She added another touch to the evening.  It turned out that Tammy is a descendant of Brigham Young, after whom the university is named. 

Tammy Young Ravsten and 
Peruvian born, Israel Gonzalez,
wearing  a Chilean costume. Legends

Of the approximately 30,000 full-time students who attend BYU, nearly 75 percent are from outside Utah, coming from each of the other 49 states and more than 130 countries. All major races and religions are represented on campus.  Already applauded in Europe, China, the Pacific Islands, Australia, Canada, South America, and South Africa, Living Legends performed at the Salt Lake City Winter Olympic Games in 2002.  Above is a photo, February 5th, a workshop for youth in Santa Ana.  The finale was a quiet, noble song entitled, Go My Son.

With the idea of trying to get the words of the song, I got online and learned more.  BYU hosts a club of native diversity, called The Tribe of Many Feathers.  Go My Son is their preamble.

Go my son, go and climb the ladder.
Go my son, go and earn your feather.
Go my son; make your people proud of you.

        Work, my son, get an education.
        Work, my son, learn a good vocation.
        Climb, my son, go and take a lofty view.

From on the ladder of an education.
You can see to help your Indian Nation
Reach my son, and lift your people up with you.

                                                             Carnes Burson & Arlene Nofchissey Williams


Dance Festival will take place on March 18-20, 2005, 
Gardena High School

Baile  Folklorico  

Hi, my name is Evelyn Garcia and I'm a senior at Everett Alvarez High School. I'm sorry if I'm bothering you, but please take the time to read this.

The Baile Folklorico Club of Everett Alvarez High School in Salinas, Ca. is a club consisting of students who have a thirst and passion for dancing. The purpose of the club is to honor and preserve our Hispanic culture.
Each year, the Baile Folklorico does fundraisers and donation letters in order to raise money for the Dance Festival will take place on March 18-20, 2005 and is attended by dancers from all over California  and some even from other states. This festival helps us learn more material and background from other regions in Mexico. This festival is very important to us. We are asking if you are able to make a donation of any amount, it will be greatly appreciated by all of us.

Please take the time to  consider our proposal.  Thank you for your consideration.

Sincerely, Evelyn Garcia
Everett Alvarez High School
Salinas,Ca 93906     (831)796-7800

If you have any questions about the festival you can visit their site at  or contact me, cell phone number is 831-210-2878  or call  714-265-9913

Martin Espino and PreHispanic Music 
Busy schedule throughout March, 
Please go to his website for details. . .

Martin writes: 
For ALL presentations, I bring over 150 Classical Prehispanic instruments and illustrate; besides the Voice, Wind & Percussion Instruments, ranging from: Ocarinas or Huilakapiztli (clay flutes shaped like animals or people); Panpipes(all sizes/materials); Tlapitzali- Flutes (single to quadruple flutes/clay); Flutes (wood, bone and bamboo); The "Plains" Flute; Whistles to imitate birds & wind; Drums like the "Ayotl"(turtle shell); "Teponaztli"(log drum) & "Huehuetl"(tall vertical drum); Water Drums (gourd); Rattles made of Deer and Goat Hooves, Butterfly Cocoons, Giant Seed Pods, etc; "Omichikahuastli" (Rasps); Rain Sticks of snake gourd or bamboo; Rain Arcs and Chimes of Sea Urchin Spines or Bamboo; Trumpets of Snake Gourd or Sea Snail Shell and since guitars, violins, harps, etc. come from European contact, the ONLY stringed instrument I bring is the Hunter's Bow (with an attached gourd resonator) called the Tawitól, in the Southern Tepehuan language or Arco Musical in Spanish! I also bring an instrument that I invented called "Jaguar's Voice". I get lots of letters and comments about it. 

Día A Día, celebró su XV Aniversario
22 de Febrero de 2005 Para Mayor

Los Ángeles - ( En días pasados el periódico Día A Día, celebró su XV Aniversario de circulación ininterrumpida en el Sur de California. Comunidad centroamericana y latinoamericana en general se viste de gala.
Eminentes personalidades locales e internacionales se hicieron presentes para dar sus congratulaciones al equipo de tan prestigioso medio de comunicación. Día a Día ha estado circulando pese a los vaivenes a que ha estado sometido en el intrincado mundo del periodismo de Los Ángeles, California. Pero hoy gracias al esfuerzo y al apoyo de sus lectores y patrocinadores, ve recompensado su trabajo.

Entre las personalidades que se hicieron presentes figuran el Presidente de la República de El Salvador, Don Elías Antonio Saca, la ex ministra de relaciones exteriores, Lic. Maria Eugenia B. de Ávila, el Excelentísimo Sr. Embajador de El Salvador en Estados Unidos, Don René León, el Cónsul General de El Salvador en Los Ángeles, Lic. Mauricio Enrique Ruano Martínez, y la Cónsul Honoraria de El Salvador en Los Ángeles, Doña Gina Levy.

De igual manera se hicieron presentes líderes comunitarios y empresariales centroamericanos entre los que se destacan, Don Juan Duran, Presidente de la Cámara de Comercio de El Salvador-California, el Sr. Tito Lagos-Bassett, Presidente de la Cámara de Comercio Nicaragüense Americana de California -CACONACA-, Erick Solares, Presidente de Comité de Festejos Centroamericanos -COFECA-, Francisco Rivera, Presidente de la Mesa Redonda Nacional Centroamericana y Camilo Castro, Presidente de la Cámara de Comercio de la Ciudad de La Puente, entre otros.

Felicitamos a los Ejecutivos del Diario Día a Día, Lic. Carlos Martínez y Enrique Alejo por tan loable labor en estos QUINCE AÑOS y a todo el personal que labora en esta prestigiosa empresa. 

Mainstream medicine is beginning to explore the aisles of botanicas
The shops, burgeoning in the Southland, sell herbs and remedies long used by Latinos.
Times Headlines, by Hilary MacGregor, Times Staff Writer,  2/07/05
Source: Instituto de los Mexicanos en el Exterior, Sintesis Informativa

Drive along many boulevards in the Los Angeles area and you will see colorful botanicas, with their curious mix of candles, incense, potions, lotions, rosaries and a pantheon of Catholic and folk saints in the window. Botanicas have arrived in this metropolis along with the immigrants they serve, soaring in numbers as Latinos make up nearly 45% of the Los Angeles population. 

Patrick Polk, a visiting professor at UCLA who has studied botanicas for more than a decade, believes there are more here in Southern California than anywhere else in the country, with much of the growth coming since the early 1990s. 

As botanicas have become a more common sight, health officials, researchers and the general public have shown increased interest in this cultural phenomenon.

Through March 6, Fowler Museum at UCLA is presenting the exhibit "Botánica Los Angeles: Latino Popular Religious Art in the City of Angels." It focuses on the artistic, religious and cultural aspects of botanicas. Last Thursday anthropologists, folklorists, priestesses and traditional herbalists gathered at the Fowler to discuss botanicas as sites of alternative medical practices. 

"Increasingly botanicas are a critical aspect of alternative, if not mainstream, healthcare in California," said Polk. "Three decades ago there were about three dozen in all of Southern California. Now there are about 500. That is a significant increase. We have to ask: What does that mean?"

No one can say for certain where this new interest comes from — whether it's Latina nannies suggesting folk remedies to parents, curious urbanites wandering into the mysterious shops or the ever-expanding influence of this country's burgeoning Latino population. 

But the public's increased use of herbal products and folk remedies has experts looking at a relatively poorly studied area: the Latino botanicas. And in the cultural mix of Los Angeles, many people who might never set foot in a botanica are now finding products such as uña de gato, an immune-stimulating herb with anti-inflammatory properties, in drugstores and health food shops.

While interest in natural herbs and supplements has grown in the last decade, there has been little research on the efficacy of Latino folk herbs. David Hayes-Bautista, director of the Center for the Study of Latino Health and Culture and a professor at UCLA's David Geffen School of Medicine, said he hopes that will change.

Government agencies, such as the National Institutes of Health, "for some reason want to deal with very exotic Asian sorts of things — acupuncture and ayurveda," said Hayes-Bautista.

"When I go back to Washington I tell them, 'There is another body of knowledge right under your nose. We need to understand more of what Latinos are doing, which may include alternative therapies and how they maintain mind-body balance. It may be pedestrian, but maybe we need to understand that too.' "

Despite a lack of research, there are signs that some of these herbs may be inching their way into the American mainstream. 

In the last two years the Santa Monica Homeopathic Pharmacy has begun to stock a handful of Latin American herbs — among them uña de gato, holy basil and boldo, for digestive and liver disorders. Manager Steve Litvak expects the number to grow in the next few years but said the going will be slow because store personnel must test each herb and brand until they know it works. 

In Texas, Dr. Victor Sierpina, a family practice doctor and a professor at the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, has begun in recent years to suggest Hispanic herbal remedies to some of his patients. These are herbs he learned about from other patients, about 20% of whom are Latinos.

"A lot of my work is in alternative medicine, and it didn't take me long to realize these people were taking herbs I had never heard of, that were not even listed in the herbal literature," said Sierpina, who has done research on some Latino herbs for a book he is writing.

Sierpina said he expects use of these herbs to grow as the Latino population in the United States continues to increase. "I think the challenge is going to be for healthcare professionals to become as familiar with these herbs as they are with echinacea and St. John' s wort," he said.

The Fowler show grew out of medical field research done by Polk, the curator of the current exhibit; Michael Owen Jones, a professor in UCLA's Department of World Arts and Cultures; and several graduate students.

The researchers used a $250,000 grant from the National Institutes of Health's National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine to study botanicas in Los Angeles.

They sought to establish what products and services botanicas provide; to learn about diagnostic techniques employed by healers in some of these botanicas and the conditions they typically treat; and to document the kinds of rituals and herbal therapies healers provide to consumers.

The researchers took a census of the city's botanicas, first using phone books and conventional listings, then fanning out across the city in cars and on foot. They counted 435, but the number continues to change almost daily, said Jones. He has since compiled a database of more than 200 medicinal herbs employed by botanicas and healers for more than 100 common uses.

At Botanica El Congo Manuel in Hollywood, Charles Guelperin from Argentina, a practitioner of Santeria, mayombe and espiritismo, provides services to everyone from recent immigrants to employees of nearby Paramount Studios.

Located in a mini-mall between a pizza joint and a pupusería, the small store is filled with candles, herbs and Catholic and Afro-Cuban sacred icons. In the back is a room for personal counseling, which is what many people come for. The store sells herbs but does not offer medical advice. 

The Million Dollar Pharmacy, on Broadway in downtown Los Angeles, is a bit different. Run by Dick Blitz, a businessman who grew up in Boyle Heights, the store has windows jammed with statues of San Simón and the Virgin of Guadalupe.

Inside, atop a glass display case, is a makeshift altar to Jesus and Mary, full of flickering candles with prayers taped to their bases. Every morning people come in, buy candles, light them and leave them, said Blitz. "People are hurting. This gives them spiritual solace."

But this is more of a 21st century botanica.

While the store stocks perfumes for good luck and for bringing a straying husband back in line, and voodoo dolls to cast spells, it also has a prescription pharmacy. There is no "healer" here — just a pharmacist. Clients are left to themselves to pick up some herbs while they wait for their prescriptions to be filled.

Rosemary Gutierrez, the store manager, says the botanica's mostly Latino customers typically come in with a recipe and know what they want. They have grown up with folk remedies and know what to buy for various maladies. 

Increasingly doctors and public health officials are taking notice of botanicas, as well as the Latino herbs and folk remedies that are often sold in places like these.

Dr. Bonnie Taub, a professor at UCLA's School of Public Health and a participant in last week's roundtable, studies the traditional medicine of several indigenous groups who live near Oaxaca, Mexico. She has spoken to various health experts to help them understand how these groups approach medicine, so practitioners can better serve them.

She said doctors need to understand that for many indigenous people, "there is this parallel healthcare belief system and set of practitioners that they utilize," with its own set of traditions that have existed for thousands of years.

"A lot of the people who use traditional medicine or go to healers for more psychic or psychospiritual problems would not reveal that to a Western doctor," she said.

"One big difference is they are more inclusive and eclectic in their care. They go to local healers but also seek care from Westernized clinics or doctors when they need it."

Jones said herbal remedies are often part of a larger treatment regimen that involves prayers, counseling and limpias, or spiritual cleansing. But, he said, people do use botanicas for ailments such as digestive disorders, vaginal infections, diabetes and chronic conditions like arthritis and respiratory infections. 

"In the best of times the number of city, state and federally funded programs and facilities for those without health insurance or documentation of their legal status falls short of needs," wrote Jones in a report on botanicas and healers. "Economic downturns force a large percentage of these facilities to close their doors, leaving few health care options … rendering faith-based and herbal healing even more important to them. Policymakers and practitioners should recognize the cultural role of faith healers and herbal therapies, and perhaps even open lines of communication with botanicas, lest the country's largest ethnic population continue to be its most underserved."

For sale at your local botanica
See below a sampling of herbs (with their Spanish names) that might be found in a botanica, and their traditional uses.
Arnica (arnica): used for bruises, internal bleeding; fruit can be used for constipation or urinary tract infection.
Basil (albahaca): used to treat digestive disorders, dysentery, nervousness, menstrual cramps or stomach gas. Usually drunk as tea.
Cumin ( comino): used to combat flatulence, colic and dyspepsia. Can be eaten as a fruit.
Rue (ruda): can be used for menstrual problems, appetite, circulation, arthritis, or topically as an insect repellent.
Spearmint (hierbabuena): used for digestive disorders, flatulence, nausea, sore throat, diarrhea, colds, headaches, cramps. 
Wormseed (epazote): used to treat intestinal disorders, parasites and gas. Drunk as tea.

[[ Editor: We have ruda growing in our yard and I've used it for earaches and toothaches for years. For earaches, I put a little branch of the leaves in gauze and crush the leaves with my fingers, just as I am ready to insert it into the ear. The leaves releases an oils and I have felt immediate relief. For a toothache, I crush the leaves by biting down on them in the area that hurts, then I pack the curshed leaves around the gum and on the tooth itself. It works great for both uses, but the odor is strong.]]

Sources: Dr. Victor Sierpina of the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, and Michael Owen Jones and Patrick Polk of UCLA. If you want other stories on this topic, search the Archives at

History Archive emerging From Its Own Difficult Past
By Larry Gordon, Los Angeles Times, 3-10-99
Sent by Sister Mary Sevilla

In 19th century Los Angeles, county officials had a simple way to discourage ballot fraud. Handwritten logs gave physical descriptions of voters that often included scars and deformities from the era's rough frontier work.

Laborer and Irish immigrant Richard Dwyer, for example, was missing his left foot, according to an inky entry in the leather-bound 1896 registration book. A few pages later, oil rigger Frank Fray, from Maine, was registered, noting the second finger of his right hand was crushed. Both men could read and sign their names, the registry reported.

Those vivid nuggets of the past are now stored on metal shelves in the basement of the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, down the stairs from the more popular dinosaur bones and stuffed and mounted lions. They are in the Seaver Center for Western History Research, a collection of more than 1 million documents, books, photographs, posters and maps—even cattle brands on leather and Mexican-era court records - that scholars say are key to studying 19th and early 20th century Southern California.

Michael Engh, an associate professor of history at Loyola Marymount University. said the Seaver is "one of those great gold mines that is little known because access is so limited."


PIO PICO, A Man of California: The Last Governor of Mexican California
Family Man, Politician, and Businessman 

Pio de Jesus Pico was one of California's most remarkable historical figures. Born at the San Gabriel Mission on May 5, 1801, he witnessed and helped to shape nearly a century of California history before his death in Los Angeles on September 11, 1894.

Pio Pico's ancestry reveals a mixture of ethnic strains. One of his 17th century ancestors was a minor Italian count. His grandmother was mulatto (Caucasian and African). His father and mother were mestizos (Spanish and Indian). Pio's father Jose Maria Pico, and his future bride, Maria Estaquilla Lopez, were bom in Mexico. They came to El Pueblo de Los Angeles from Sinaloa with 240 other colonists on the famous Anza expedition of 1775. Pico was the fourth of ten children (three boys, seven girls) bom to this couple and throughout his life he remained very close to all the members of this family.

During his long and active life, he rose from poverty to become one of the richest men in California and for a time held the highest political office in Mexican California. He was known and respected by almost all his fellow Califomios and by prominent American settlers as well. Always loyal to California's interests, he played an important role in the political and economic life of this state throughout most of his life.

As Governor of California 

He was part of the government of Mexican California from about 1828 until California became a part of the United States. Much of his involvement was as a revolutionary, dedicated to changing the departmental government to meet the desire of many Califomios for republican rule. m the California of the 1830s and 1840s, this meant frequent clashes with the representatives of the supreme government in Mexico.

Pico's involvement in California government eventually led to his position as Governor from 1845 until the Americans took over in 1846. He fled to Mexico to prevent the conquering Americans from capturing him, and consequently the California government taking him prisoner. Following the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, Pico became a private citizen, successful business man, and served on the Los Angeles City Council.

He owned the Pico House, Los Angeles first major hotel. The hotel, located in the £7 Pueblo de Los Angeles (Olvera Street), is currently being restored by the city of Los Angeles, with funding assistance from the State Office of Historic Preservation.

Life at El Ranchito 

Pio Pico purchased the Rancho Paso de Bartolo Viejo from the heirs of Juan Crispin Perez, around 1850. In the same year, he built a large adobe home on the rancho, using it as a country residence 'when his increasing businesses in Los Angeles enabled him to leave his house on the Plaza. Life at El Ranchito was conducted much as it had been before California became a state. Surrounded by orchards and fields, it was a gathering place for his neighbors as well as business acquaintances traveling the large distances between settlements.

Pio Pico Mansion reflects the type of home and lifestyle that wealthy Southern Californians built for themselves on their ranches. In its present condition it seems relatively small and unpretentious, but during the 1850's and 1860's it was more than twice as large, and was considered by contemporaries to be quite impressive. During Pio's residence, it was surrounded by gardens with rare and imported flowering plants.

Pico's Fortunes During California's Early Statehood 

Southern California was not as impacted by the flood of American gold seekers as the northern part of the state. Life went on much as it had before the gold rush. The large ranches continued to operate, flourishing in response to the demand for beef to feed hungry miners. For a time Pico's fortunes soared.

However, the unpredictable weather, the bad hick in business, and the unethical actions of other businessmen conspired to deplete his assets, leaving Pico with little more than his home at El Ranchito.

Pio Pico never learned English, since California was a Spanish speaking country, so he was sometimes prey to less than honest American business partners. As Pico's fortunes rose and fell his vast land holdings were sold off to pay business debts.

In his later years, after many of his business ventures faltered, Pico spent most of his time at El Ranchito, but during his final years. El Ranchito was also lost. Deprived of his home, he stayed with friends and family, finally dying at the home of his daughter Joaquina Pico Moreno in 1894.

Pio Pico State Historic Park 6003 Pioneer Blvd. - Whittier - 90606 310/695-1217


The park is located in the city of Whittier, approximately 15 miles east of downtown Los Angeles. Park grounds are currently open Wednesday through Sunday, from 10:00 am to 5:00 pm.  The historic house is open on a limited basis and by advanced reservation. facilities include picnic tables, restrooms, drinking fountains and parking. Picnic areas may be reserved for group use. 

For additional information contact the California Department of Parks and Recreation - Angeles District 1925 Las Virgenes Road - Calabasas - 91320 818/880-0350


CALIFORNIA, 1850-1860: Another Californio, Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo
In early 1846 Mariano Guadalupe Hildalgo held title to 175,000 acres including the site of the present-day cities of Vallejo and Benicia, which he helped found. 
In 1849, Vallejo was one of eight Califomios to serve California's constitutional convention. Although the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hildalgo protected the legal rights of Mexicans incorporated into the United States, a long legal challenge to Vallejo's land title cost him thousand of dollars and finally deprived him of almost all his land. By the time of his death in 1890, Vallejo was reduced to a holding of 200 acres.

Vallejo's life was in many ways was representative of the fate all Califomios faced under American rule. Their new country treated them as foreigners. By the end of the century almost all Mexicans and Mexican-Americans found themselves a beleaguered minority, with little or no political power, and occupying the lowest rungs of the economic ladder. 
During and after the gold rush hoards of American settlers had moved into the state and they wanted to settle down on farms. They did not understand how a few men could own such vast estates and raise only cattle. They moved right in on the ranches and became squatters. 

The federal government appointed a land commission to investigate ownership and began meeting in 1851.  Most of the meetings were held in San Francisco. Translators were costly, lodging for families and witnesses were costly, lawyers worked for a fee which was usually a percentage of the property, and the all white commission required the ranchers to prove ownership. Pio Pico and his brother had title to some 700,000 acres which was almost all lost to legal challenge.
In 1851 Congress passes the California Land Act to resolve property disputes between Mexican Americans and Anglos.

The California counties with highest Mexican-American populations are taxed at a rate five time greater than any other region in the state.

Early Los Angeles Times articles, 
gathered by Karla Evertt,  
and distributed by 
Visit the California Spanish Genealogy website

Los Angeles Times, April 20, 1883: CELIS'S BODY BROUGHT IN

How the Accident Happened - Funeral Arrangements.

The body of Deputy Sheriff Adolfo Celis was brought down on yesterday morning's train from San Fernando by Major Gard, and prepared for burial by Messrs. Ponot & Orr. The funeral will take place at 2 o'clock to-day, the procession starting from Confidence Engine House No. 2, thence to the Plaza church, where religious exercises will be held, and thence to the cemetery.

Mr. Gard gave the following additional particulars of the sad event: He and Celis were on the front seat of the wagon, Celis driving, and the two each having guns, were shooting rabbits. Mr. Gard had a double-barreled shotgun and Celis had his rifle. Gard was chaffing Celis about missing so many
shots, as Celis had just shot three times at a rabbit before he killed it, and had got the game and started on again, he watching out on one side of the road and Gard on the other, and each sitting with their faces turned from each other. Mr. Gard noticed Celis placing a coat or blanket further
back on the seat, it having slipped forward, and presently he heard the report of a gun. Looking around Celis still held the lines and still sat erect. Gard asked if he wanted to make a widow of his wife, and asked him to be a little careful of his firing, supposing that it was one of Celis's pistols that had been discharged. Celis did not reply, and they jogged along some thirty or forty yards when Celis fell backward, making a gurgling sound with his throat, and it was discovered that he was dead. Then the situation was realized, and search was made for the wound. The rifle was not then in the wagon and was not missed at the time, Gard thinking all the time that the pistol had done the damage. The wound was at length found in the center of the breast just above the pit of the stomach, and back of the point of the left shoulder the ball passed out. The poor man never knew what struck, him so sudden was the death. The rifle was missed, and going back to the place where the explosion took place it was found lying in the road. It had been accidentally knocked out of the wagon, and in its fall the hammer struck a spoke of the wheel which caused the discharge of the

Los Angeles Times, May 26, 1903:  ROMANTIC DAY, PATHETIC END.

Sad Burial of Once Wealthy Scion of Spain
Mass Intoned for Sr. De Celis, Who Died in Poverty.
Los Angeles Man Who Once Loaned Sixty Thousand Dollars to Mexico.

There was a pathetic little funeral yesterday at the old Spanish Church. The casket was of the plainest and there were no flowers: indeed, not even pallbearers to carry it from the hearse to the altar. A few mourners, a small group of the friends of the family in former years, mostly women,
followed the body borne by men who happened to be passing at the time, down the aisle to the front seats. A spectator would never have imagined from the surroundings that the man, over whose remains the priest was intoning the mass for the dead, was at one time one of the well-known figures of Los Angeles, and the son of a prominent capitalist of early days who counted his leagues by thousands, and to whom the thought of poverty for his eldest born would have been beyond the imagination.

Eulogio F. de Celis was a native of Los Angeles, the son of Don Eulogio, Sr., and Josefa Arguello de De Celis, natives of Spain. Eulogio was given all the advantages of travel and education that the wealth and position of his family demanded. He was sent to England to perfect his knowledge of the
English language, and to Paris to learn French in the schools of that city. The family went to Spain, where they resided some twenty years, and where the father died, but Eulogio returned to Los Angeles with power of attorney to manage his father's vast acres, valued then at $200,000. He spent money with a lavish hand, and his friends and associates shared in his generosity, as many old settlers here remember. One historian states that Senor De Celis bought a lot near the site of the Westminster Hotel, built one of the best houses in the city at that time, and presented it outright to a friend who was in straitened circumstances.

Mr. De Celis established and published, for a number of years, "La Cronica" and other newspapers in the Spanish language. He is described as a polished, cultured gentleman of attractive personality, who in his prosperity had hosts of friends, but for several years before his death he was abjectly poor, and at one time almost blind, though later his sight was partially restored. He left a widow and four beautiful little children, two boys and two girls, with no resource but the mother's hands.

Don Eulogio De Celis, Sr., was a man of strong character and large wealth.  During the Mexican War he loaned that government, through the late Gov. Pio Pico, $60,000 as a war fund, and took part of the San Fernando Rancho as security, which he sold. Don Eulogio was the cause of a very embarrassing and painful experience in the career of Gen. John C. Fremont. When Fremont was acting Governor of California, and had his official residence in Alexander Bell's house, on the corner of Alameda and Aliso streets, he contracted with Don Eulogio for a number of cattle. The cattle were delivered, but the government repudiated the claim, alleging that Fremont had no authority to enter into the contract. De Celis turned the vouchers over to an Englishman, and when Fremont visited London he was arrested and kept in jail until the claim was paid. Though determined in standing fast for his own, Don Eulogio is said to have been a man of large heart and generous impulses. While the Mexican War was in progress, there were many American prisoners in Los Angeles. They were kept under guard in an old adobe house east of the river, where they suffered from hunger. Don Eulogio took them in hand, provided and paid for food for them out of his own

The De Celis home was a palatial residence in its day, that stood on the site and is part of the present St. Elmo Hotel. When it was sold the family removed to South Main street, where their olive and walnut orchards and vineyards extended from the old Childs place on Twelfth to Washington and from Main to San Pedro streets. After her husband's death Mrs. De Celis returned from Spain with her family to Los Angeles, where she died some eight or ten years ago. She is described as a very elegant and accomplished lady of fine presence and charming personality. She wore the costume of her native land, the high tortoise shell back comb in the hair, supporting the black lace mantilla that fell below the waist. She was skilled in the old-time accomplishment of Spanish women, fine embroidery, taking great pains to have her sons' costumes on fiesta days beautifully embellished by her own hands. A number of relatives of the family are well-known residents of this city.

Abstract: The new Chicano movement 

By Josh Kun, For the Los Angeles Times, January 9, 2005
Sent by Howard Shorr

It's been more than 35 years since Chicano art grew out of the political urgency of the Chicano civil rights movement. The earliest examples of the work were aesthetically raw posters and banners inspired by the farm workers' struggle and by protests over social issues in cities throughout the Southwest. It quickly grew into a more refined body of work that often was marked by familiar religious and cultural images—La Virgen de Guadalupe, Day of the Dead skeletons, pre-Columbian figures, low riders. The genre, dominated by narrative painting executed with lush palettes, took its place as a distinct movement in the American art scene. Los Angeles—by virtue of its role as one of Mexican America's most important capitals, and the sheer number of artists working here—became the center of the Chicano art universe.

Today, a rapidly expanding pool of young Southern California artists is actively redefining what it means to make Chicano art in the new millennium. Where the social movements of the past once supplied muralists and painters with a rich iconography to choose from and social causes to speak to, the new school wants icons for the events and experiences of its own time.

The far-ranging diversity of these events and experiences has caused a shift in Chicano artistic consciousness. What once was a necessary and useful catchall category now represents a more complicated set of choices and consequences for young artists who know their history from art school and MTV as well as Chicano Studies classes. This new generation of artists also reflects the larger transformation of L.A.'s Chicano community, which continues to grow and assimilate in new and unpredictable ways.

Perhaps no young artist better exemplifies the new rubric than Camille Rose Garcia, 34, who grew up in the suburban hinterlands of Huntington Beach and is the daughter of a Franco German muralist mother and a Chicano filmmaker father from Lincoln Heights. Her experiences and work perfectly reflect the crossroads at which this new generation of artists has arrived.

"I was always made aware that I was a 'beaner' by other kids, but I don't have the same viewpoint of someone who grew up in East L.A.," says Garcia, wearing an AC/DC T-shirt at the Merry Karnowsky Gallery in West Hollywood, where she recently had her first major solo show. "I don't feel like I fit into a totally Chicano scene. I'm one foot in and one foot out."

"The Chicano tradition of activism and social commentary is so important to me," she says. "But if your work is only about identity, a lot of people can't relate to it. I want people to care about my work because I want them to care about the world, about the Earth, about extinction."

Adds 29-year-old conceptual artist Ruben Ochoa: "Sometimes I feel like we're carrying this baggage on our shoulders, like we've been born into it. But if we just keep repeating the same iconography, it defeats the purpose of art: to grow and create and explore. Chicano art is so young. We can't start repeating ourselves. We need to mix and blend and make art from where we're from."

The story of Chicano art in Los Angeles is the story of Chicanos in Los Angeles. It's the story of a community in the midst of a massive transition, from a civil rights past to a multicultural present, from being a geographically bound vocal minority with focused political and social aims in the '60s to an amorphous demographic dispersed across a city that now has no majority ethnic population. (According to the 2000 census, Latinos make up nearly 45% of the L.A. County population, and 70% of those Latinos are of Mexican origin.)

For Chicano artists in Los Angeles, the transition has led to a difficult question that often leads to multiple answers: Do you make Chicano art, or do you make art?

"Why just because of my name should I be put in a show based on color, when all the white students I graduated with from Art Center and UCLA are being put in shows based on their work?" asks painter Salomon Huerta, whose pastel portraits of the backs of male Chicano heads caused a stir among collectors in the '90s and earned him acclaim in mainstream museums and galleries. Later this year, he will show alongside Cindy Sherman and Gabriel Orozco at New York's Robert Miller Gallery. "It is very important to me that I be recognized as an artist who is part of the world like everyone else. But I was inspired by the Chicano movement. When the old Chicanos recognize my work, it still means more to me than getting recognition from John Baldessari."

But as Chicano artists move away from strictly identity-based work, museums and galleries continue to move toward it.

"Museums are still trying to get Chicano art in their collections, but the artists have moved beyond that with their own work," says Rita Gonzales, who has become the Chicano new wave's leading critical and curatorial voice. "So how can we find a common language? I think a lot of people are tired of being curated by ethnic category. Artists will be supportive of galleries or museums that want to show Chicano artists, but they also want to be expanding the parameters of their identity as well."

In many ways, these debates started taking shape in the late 1980s, when Chicano art was introduced to widespread national audiences through two major touring exhibitions: the 1987 "Hispanic Art in the United States" show organized by Washington's Corcoran Gallery of Art, and, three years later, the UCLA Wight Gallery's "Chicano Art: Resistance and Affirmation, 1965-1985."

The exhibits presented competing tendencies that continue to divide contemporary Chicano art. The Corcoran show, which included Latino artists of various ethnicities and was organized by white curators, lobbied for Chicano artists to be included as part of a larger contemporary art scene, albeit as exotic, primitive outsiders. The UCLA show, organized by Chicano curators, lobbied for Chicano art to remain a strictly delineated identity-based genre, a singular entity with defined boundaries rooted in the struggle for civil rights and visibility.

When the genre went international in 1989 as part of what many observers hyped as a "Chicano art boom," French curators managed to have it both ways, casting L.A. Chicanos as visionary prophets of the urban future. "It is now a must for Beverly Hills collectors to own their 'Chicano!'," declared an essay in the catalog for "Le Demon des Anges" ("Angels' Demon"), a show that was seen in France, Spain and Sweden. "For the first time, Latinos have gained entry to the largest Los Angeles museums."

Back home, the reality was a bit more sobering. Until the Los Angeles County Museum of Art hosted the Corcoran show in 1989, its recognition of Chicano artists hadn't gone far beyond 1974, when it exhibited the work of the Los Four collective—Carlos Almaraz, Frank Romero, Gilbert "Magu" Lujan and Beto de la Rocha. Chicano artists might have been in vogue, especially abroad, but at home they remained on the fringes of the art establishment.

Little has changed today. The number of commercial galleries showing Chicano work has not grown since the '80s (the Patricia Correia and Robert Berman galleries remain constants), though long-established cultural centers such as Self-Help Graphics, the Mexican Cultural Institute and Plaza de la Raza continue as mainstays of the scene.

The latest effort to address this cultural void comes from L.A. County Supervisor Gloria Molina, who is spearheading the $70-million Plaza de Cultura y Artes, which is scheduled to open across from Olvera Street in 2007. And LACMA has just inked a five-year strategic partnership with UCLA's Chicano Studies Research Center to develop art exhibitions, publications and programming. The partnership already has led to the hiring of Rita Gonzales as an assistant curator and to a new acquisition for the museum's permanent collection, "The Great Blind Huron," a print by Camille Rose Garcia.

"The Chicano art scene has always been here," says Correia, whose Santa Monica gallery shows only Mexican American artists. "The art world is still waking up to it. There is still so little exposure on a local and national level. Are we still living in an era with that much bigotry? I can't think of any other answer. It's still about exclusion."

That is precisely why actor and art collector Cheech Marin decided to organize "Chicano Visions: American Painters on the Verge," the first nationally touring exhibition devoted to Chicano painters. The show, which has support from media conglomerate Clear Channel, features major figures such as Frank Romero, John Valadez, Patssi Valdez and Gronk and is slated for LACMA in 2006.

"Ninety-nine percent of the country doesn't know what a Chicano is, let alone what their art looks like," Marin says. "The whole purpose of this thing is to give access to Chicano cultures in the mainstream. We're done preaching to ourselves."

Many worry that the show's emphasis on painting, the scant attention it pays to younger artists and its tendency toward the recognizable imagery of decades past misrepresents the diversity of Chicano art. But Marin disagrees. "The Chicano school of art is every generation's interpretation of what the Chicano experience is about," he says. "To every generation, it's a little bit different. They each have as much right to say what is or isn't Chicano art than anyone who went before them."

Mario Ybarra Jr. grew up in Wilmington, one of Mexican L.A.'s more unsuspected suburban capitals.

"These kids grow up in a homogenized space with freeways that close them in," Ybarra says. "We try to bring in as many different kinds of people to interface with them . . . so that they don't think the only people they can communicate with look just like them, speak just like them."

It's an attitude of openness and cultural contact that pervades Ybarra's own work. Although he respects earlier Chicano artists' political need to create a visual language for ethnic identity, he is more interested in how identities intersect and open up, creating new urban hybrids in which cholo action figures meet futuristic sci-fi low riders and Pablo Escobar is dressed in a Columbia space shuttle suit.

"I don't think I make Chicano art," says Ybarra, standing in Slanguage's backroom, which is cluttered with Mac computers, crates of records, an Osama bin Laden piñata and a spray-painted portrait of reggae singer Jimmy Cliff. "It's something I have learned as a history and acquired as a filter. But right now, I don't think I could say I'm making it. It's like saying I make abstract expressionist painting. I'm not an ab-ex painter. I can't go back and make that art. I make contemporary art that is filtered from a Mexican American experience in Los Angeles."

Ybarra thinks of it as the Edward James Olmos theory of Chicano art. He wants to be less like the actor in "American Me" and "Zoot Suit"—in which Olmos was prison tough and pachuco savvy—and more like Olmos' character in "Blade Runner." In the film's dystopian 2029 L.A. future, Olmos is Gaff—a digital urban polyglot, a Chinese Chicano detective who speaks a street patois of English, Spanish, French, Chinese, Hungarian and German.

"My main drive," says Ybarra, "is not to learn Nahuatl, but to learn Mandarin or Cantonese."

Like many of his peers, part of Ybarra's interest in juggling multiple cultural realities comes from his experiences in art school. In the '70s and '80s, art school was less common for Chicano artists—a luxury that distracted from the political urgency of the movement. Now it's the norm. Ybarra graduated from Otis Art Institute and then pursued an MFA at UC Irvine. He studied with Chicanos and non-Chicanos alike, including renowned L.A. artist Martin Kersels and Daniel Martinez, an acclaimed conceptual artist who often has kept his distance from identity politics.

"I needed my degrees," Ybarra says. "I needed to be official. I'm not going to operate from a handicap position."



El Camino Real Bell
History of 
El Camino Real Bells
California Quarter
Historic House Threatened
Julie Padilla runs for office
New Book: "California Colony" 
Jose Leon Robles de la Torre
Mexican Immigrants to export Nopal
In The Mix:   Mexican/Filipinos
Early Los Angeles Times articles 
Baja California, Chapter DAR
The Bandini Donation
Death Index omissions 

On August 15, 1906 the first El Camino Real Bell was installed at the Pueblo De Los Angeles Mission Church  near Olvera Street in Los Angeles. It still stands today! In 2004 Caltrans installed 555 of our Mission Bell Markers  from  South San Francisco to Los Angeles along the El Camino Real and Highway 101.

The El Camino Real Bell is made of cast iron, weighs 85 pounds and is 17 1/2" by 17 1/2" in size. 
The Caltrans Mission Bell Marker is 15 1/2' tall. The bottom of the bell measures 11' from the ground.

An Authentic El Camino Real Bell Mission Bell Marker can be purchased for $1,795.  Includes the bell, pipes, all mounting hardware and paint. Overall height is 14 1/2'.  Three color choices are available: Traditional Verde Green,  Caltrans Dark Green, or Charcoal Grey .

For more information:  John Kolstad  (408) 741-1549 
California Bell Co. 
13600 Westover Dr. 
Saratoga, Ca  95070-5136
Or email:
Sent by Lorri Frain

The El Camino Real and It's Historic Bells

In 1769, The El Camino Real, or King’s Highway, was just a footpath begun by the Franciscans and led by Father Junipero Serra who was a deciding influence in establishing the California Missions north from San Diego to Sonoma. Each Mission was situated in areas where large populations of Indians lived and where the soil was fertile enough to sustain a settlement. As time progressed and more Missions were built, the footpath became a roadway wide enough to accommodate horses and wagons. It was not, however, until the last Mission in Sonoma was completed in 1823, that this little pathway became a real route.

    “El Camino Real” is the Spanish name for the historic road that joined the twenty one Franciscan Missions, the Pueblos and Presidios in the early days of California. Many of the Missions have been restored and the King’s Highway now is a magnificent modern road leading from San Diego, via Rose Canon, to Oceanside, then inland to Mission San Luis Rey and Pala—or from Oceanside to Mission San Juan Capistrano, Myford-Irving, Tustin, Santa Ana, Orange, Anaheim, Fullerton, LA Habra, Whittier, Mission San Gabriel to El Monte, Puente, Pomona, Claremont, San Bernardino, Redlands, Colton and Riverside. 

    From Los Angeles El Camino Real leads to Hollywood, through Cahuenga Pass to Sherman Way thence to Mission San Fernando—or from Sherman Way to Calabasas, Camarillo, Ventura, Santa Barbara, Gaviota, Mission Santa Ines, Mission La Purisima, Los Olivos, Santa Maria, San Luis Obispo, Paso Robles, San Miguel, Jolon, Mission San Antonio, Soledad, Salinas to Monterey and Mission Carmel, or from Salinas to Mission San Juan Bautista, San Jose, Mission San Jose, Hayward, San Leandro, to Oakland—or from San Jose to Santa Clara, Palo Alto, Redwood City, San Mateo, Colma, Ocean View, to Mission de los Dolores and San Francisco (Market and Third Streets). Across the bay, El Camino Real leads from San Rafael to Mission San Francisco Solano in Sonoma. 

    The greater portion of El Camino Real is Highway 101, a part of the splendid system of California highways. It is a continuous road over seven hundred miles in length and is marked by the unique and picturesque Mission Bell guideposts which originally gave distances between the principal towns and directions to the Missions. The bells are placed along the road not merely as landmarks and guides to travelers but as testimonials to the work of the Franciscan padres who were the pioneers that settled California in 1769. 
The miniature bells sold in mission gift shops since 1914, are replicas of the hundreds of Mission Bell Guideposts marking the El Camino Real. Some of the old inventory made from 1914 to 1955 is still available from California Bell. 

    The idea of placing a marker along the highway and in front of each Mission did not come about until 1906 when a cast iron 85 pound bell and piping designed by Mrs. A.S.C. Forbes was placed into the ground in concrete at the Iglesia de Nuestra Senora Reina de Los Angeles, also know as the Plaza Church near Union Depot in Los Angeles.

    The bells were inscribed, "El Camino Real 1769-1906." The dates reflect the founding of the first Mission and the dedication of the first bell in Los Angeles on August 15, 1906.

    The plan had been to place one bell along each mile of the El Camino Real Highway, in front of each Mission, and also selected historical landmarks. By 1913, a goal of 425 bells was reached. One bell was placed in front of each Mission and the balances were placed along the El Camino Real Highway. Since then many bells were lost to road reconstruction and theft. 

    After feeble attempts over the past 50 years, John Kolstad, President of Mrs. A.S.C. Forbes original California Bell Company, and Keith Robinson, Principal Landscape Architect of Caltrans, have teamed together and installed 555 original El Camino Real Bells along Highway 101.  These bells have been installed on Caltrans property from Los Angeles to San Francisco.  California Bell is now working with cities to reinstall the original bells in the remaining areas of the original route.  From Sonoma to San Francisco, and Los Angeles to San Diego, new bells will be appearing along El Camino Real. Call your local City Manager for information on their installation progress.


California Quarter

Source: The United States Mint

The first quarter released in 2005 honors California, and is the 31st in the United States Mint's 50 State Quarters® Program. California was admitted into the Union on September 9, 1850, becoming our Nation’s 31st State. Nicknamed the "Golden State," California’s quarter depicts naturalist and conservationist John Muir admiring Yosemite Valley’s monolithic granite headwall known as "Half Dome" and also contains a soaring California condor. The coin bears the inscriptions "California," "John Muir," "Yosemite Valley" and "1850." 

In 1849, the year before California gained statehood, the family of 11-year-old John Muir emigrated from Scotland to the United States, settling in Wisconsin. In 1868, at the age of 30, Muir sailed up the West Coast and landed in San Francisco. He made his home in the Yosemite Valley, describing the Sierra Nevada Mountains as "the Range of Light… the most divinely beautiful of all the mountain chains I have seen." He devoted the rest of his life to the conservation of natural beauty, publishing more than 300 articles and 10 books that expanded his naturalist philosophy. 

In 1890, Congress established Yosemite National Park, and in 1892 John Muir helped form the Sierra Club to protect it, serving as that organization’s President until his death in 1914. 

The California condor, with a wingspan as long as nine feet, is also featured on the coin in a tribute to the successful repopulation of the once nearly extinct bird. 

The 20-member California State Quarter Commission was formed to solicit design concepts from California citizens and to review all submissions. The Commission forwarded 20 design concepts to Governor Gray Davis’s office for further consideration. From these, five were chosen as finalists and sent for final review to the United States Mint. Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger chose the final selection from this group of five. The four other design concepts considered included "Waves and Sun," "Gold Miner," "Golden Gate Bridge," and the "Giant Sequoia" design. The Department of Treasury approved the "John Muir/Yosemite Valley" design on April 15, 2004. 

[[Editor: In gathering background information on the new California quarter, I came across an effort to stop the production of the quarter.  The position is well reasoned, in that the vote and voice of the people were ignored. ]]

Remarkable Latina's Historic House Threatened

An important remnant of California's past is facing demolition. The Palo Alto home built by Juana Briones -San Francisco Bay Area pioneer of the 19th century, ranch owner, businesswoman, folk healer, and humanitarian of note-may be torn down to build a multi-million dollar house. A remarkable person in her time, Briones was one of few women in the past century to purchase her own ranch and to build a home that became the oldest continuously lived in structure in Santa Clara County up through the 1980s.

The current owners wish to demolish it, but the Juana Briones Heritage Foundation is working to buy the house from them, restore it, and create a hands-on history program for schoolchildren. The Foundation, which has gathered a coalition of historians, architects, attorneys, educators, and community leaders to save this touchstone, is hopeful that when the owners, who have never lived in the vacant house, understand its importance to women's history and our state's roots, a mutually agreeable deal can be reached.

A confusion by local historian Dorothy Regnery in the 1960s led to the downgrading of the house from "landmark" to "site of" status at the State Office of Historic Preservation. The unusual earthen-walled style of construction perplexed Regnery, who was searching for evidence of an adobe brick house. Her confusion created a cloud of misunderstanding that is now finally cleared away. What was never doubted by Regnery is that Juana Briones did live in this house. 

February 9, 2005
Contact: Prof. Al Camarillo,
Halimah Van Tuyl

Sent by Mario Galvan 

Julie Padilla, husband Paul and son.  Jullie is currently running for the 5th Congressional District seat left vacant by the death of Robert Matsui.  She will be running against Doris Matsui, widow the the deceased congressman. 

Julie Padilla, Executive Dean
University of Northern California
Lorenzo Patino School of Law  


New Book: "California Colony," 
Doris Castro: A life lived to the fullest
by Chris Nichols, The Union Democrat Online
January 20, 2005
Sent by to

Scores of faded books, worn as much by use as by time, fill Doris Castro's Angels Camp apartment. A copy of Cervantes' "Don Quixote" rests on a shelf above a half dozen works on Celtic mythology. "Tales of the Gold Rush" lay near a history of Thailand and Cambodia, which are two shelves above a Russian/English dictionary.

Like her books, Castro has spent most of her 85 years translating and preserving history. Most recently she completed a genealogy project that was more than four decades in the making.

"California Colony," a vast reference guide to more than 1,300 of the earliest Spanish colonial families to settle in California, was published in October.

The project held particular significance to Castro, who moved to Calaveras County in 1960. Her late husband, Kenneth Castro, was a descendant of one of the first families to move from Mexico to California, settling in San Francisco eight generations ago.

Castro said she hopes families will use the guide to trace their roots back to the state's Spanish colonial period. The book includes family genealogy, land grants and notes from 1769 through the 1860s.

"It was a very important period in California history, which I think has largely been forgotten," Castro said. "Most people do not realize that California was a colony of Spain, with it's capital in Mexico City."

Castro's project — which she typed four times on a manual typewriter — was originally more than 1,000 pages. It's now a comparatively svelte 620 pages.

The work, Castro said, culminates a lifetime of study, travel and work across the globe. For decades, she worked as a translator and writer for both the military and various news sources.  Whether in foreign or familiar lands, she said, each experience deepened her love for history and language, and motivated her to complete the project.

Early on

Growing up in the American heartland — Mahaska County, Iowa — Castro never thought she'd record the history of the Golden State's earliest settlers. But from an early age, she knew that travel and new languages were among her passions.

Castro graduated from the University of Iowa in 1943, earning a bachelor's degree in romance languages, which included Spanish, French and Portuguese.

After college, she left Iowa for Mexico City, studying Spanish stenography at Academia La Salle for a year and a half. Castro has fond memories of her time in the capital city. She gained a deep appreciation there for Spanish and Mexican history, an affinity that has strengthened over time.

Many friends and area historians encouraged Castro as she compiled the thousands of names and dates included in her book, she said.

"It's something she never gave up on. Other people would have," said Jackie Walraven of Douglas Flat, a friend of Castro's for 20 years. "I really think she loves history and loves the idea of the missions and Spanish history."

Toward the end of World War II, Castro became a translator for the U.S. Army in the Panama Canal Zone. She worked for the Office of Censorship, reading letters written in Spanish and French that had been sent from Europe to South America, a home to several Nazi enclaves.

Castro and her coworkers watched for any messages that might signal an attack on Allied supply ships sailing through the canal. Most of the work was tedious and most letters were harmless.

But in 1944, Castro and her office helped foil a German plot to destroy a Grace Lines steamer sent to supply the Allies from Chile. Reflecting on her time and accomplishments in the Canal Zone, Castro said she never considered her work heroic.

"It was important, yes," Castro said last week, seated in her apartment overlooking the foothills of Angels Camp. "But it was just something to do."

Two years later, at the end of the war, the U.S. Army needed translators to work in war-torn Berlin. "So, I sat down and studied German," Castro said. She landed a job in Berlin with the Army Prisoners of War Division taking notes for American diplomats as they devised rules for a new German government.

Away from work, the horrors of post-war Berlin were all around her. Walking to and from her office during the winter of 1946, she saw countless Germans starving and freezing among the city's ruins.

Back to the U.S.

Castro returned to the United States in the late 1940s, eager to pursue graduate studies. She considered enrolling at the University of California, Berkeley, but after spending time in the East Bay town she decided against the idea.

"It was too communistic for my suit," she said. She instead began work in San Francisco, but found her time there unfulfilling.

So, she went to Washington D.C. and was hired by the Foreign Service. She again served as a stenographer, assisting American diplomats as they carried out the Marshall Plan throughout Europe.

During this tour of Europe, she worked in Madrid, Paris and Vienna. Castro attended the opera almost every night while in Vienna, buying tickets for less than it cost to watch a movie in the United States, she said.

She eventually returned to the U.S. and enrolled in graduate school at Radcliffe College, Harvard University's women's campus, in Cambridge, Mass.

There she used her knowledge of Russian — she had taken an intensive Russian language course at the University of Iowa — to earn a fellowship studying Soviet economics. But as the Cold War grew, Castro's interest in school waned.

She left Radcliffe in the early 1950s to again work for the Army, this time as a cartographer. She worked with Russian maps of Siberia, changing markers and symbols from Russian to English.

Despite contributing to the U.S. effort to defeat communism, Castro said she never felt particularly patriotic about her work and has never attached much significance to her own involvement in the nation's war efforts.

"You never stopped to analyze it, you just lived it," she said.

Going to California

Castro met her husband, who operated a gem and mineral business, and settled in California in the late 1950s. The two moved from Santa Barbara to Murphys in 1960.

She took a job as a correspondent for the Stockton Record, reporting on the Calaveras County Board of Supervisors each fall during budget hearings.  She later joined the Murphys Post Office as a clerk, working for 26 years before retired in 1990. Compared to her time abroad, she admits her Post Office work was a bit dull.

But come vacation time, she and her husband traveled, crisscrossing the earth, visiting opal fields in Australia and meeting mineral experts in South America, Europe and Asia.

Castro continued to write during this time, contributing to several gem and mineral journals, and compiling names, dates and land grants for "California Colony."

She now lives at Foothill Village, a residential center that provides assisted living in Angels Camp.

"She's kind of a quiet person, very independent," said Frances Easley, a resident who sits with Castro at most meals. Easley said Castro will tell residents "bits and pieces" of her many lifetime experiences.

Debbie Ponte, the center's manager, called Castro a great listener and "a wealth of knowledge." Contact Chris Nichols at  Sierra Views is a weekly feature profiling various people and places of the Sierra foothills; every one and every place has a story. Have a profile suggestion? Call the editor at 588-4546 or 736-1234.


George Luna

Jose Leon Robles de la Torre, (Journalist, Historian, Writer) from Torreon, Coahuila, Mexico. Mr. Robles writes for "El Siglo De Torreon," newspaper, this week he writes about George Luna, who was a Professor at San Luis Obispo University, council member and Mayor from Atascadero, California. Mr. Luna's ancestors were from  (Juanchorrey, Zacatecas)  Mr. Robles de la Torre and Mr. Luna are distant cousins.

Sent by Mercy Bautista-Olvera

Personajes de la historia: Por: José León Robles de la Torre

Doctor en Matemáticas George Luna Meza, Maestro Emérito de la Universidad de San Luis Obispo, California, y Mayor de la ciudad de Atascadero, Calif. Sus abuelos fueron de Juanchorrey, Tep., Zacs., y sus profundas raíces mexicanas.

08 de febrero de 2005 Un nieto de zacatecanos, como otros muchos, ha triunfado en los Estados Unidos, haciendo honor a sus raíces aztecas e hispanas. El Dr. en Matemáticas George Luna Meza, es Maestro Emérito en Matemáticas de la Universidad de San Luis Obispo, Cal. Habla el francés, el alemán, el inglés, el español y algo de ruso. Además es Alcalde de la hermosa ciudad de Atascadero (no hace honor a ese nombre), Cal., por segunda vez, ya que en las elecciones del dos de noviembre de 2004, triunfó en su reelección para otro período de cuatro años.

Además de las matemáticas y la política, es un apasionado de la genealogía y con ese motivo investiga archivos y documentos. A raíz de haber adquirido en Texas mi libro Filigranas, Fundaciones y Genealogías de Tepetongo, Zacs., 1596-1999, me escribió solicitándome algunos datos y aclaraciones sobre sus ancestros. De allí nació un intercambio de correspondencia conmigo.

Haré un poco de historia: El abuelo del Dr. Luna, fue don Casimiro de Luna López, nació en Juanchorrey, Tep., Zacs., el cuatro de mayo de 1886, siendo sus padres don Macedonio de Luna, nacido en Juanchorrey el 14 de septiembre de 1857 y doña Secundina López Muro. El abuelo de don Casimiro fue don Simón Luna Álvarez, nacido en Juanchorrey el 28 de mayo de 1828.

Don Casimiro de Luna L., casó en Juanchorrey con doña María Márquez González, nacido en Tepetongo, Zacs., el 11 de abril de 1892, era hija de don Donaciano Márquez Mejía y de doña Paula González de la Torre Correa, también originaria de Juanchorrey, nacida el 14 de enero de 1856, hija de don José Miguel Leocadio Encarnación González Correa, nacido en la Hacienda de San Joaquín, Tep. El ocho de enero de 1814 y casado en primeras nupcias con Ma. de Jesús de la Torre Sánchez, y fallecida ésta, casó con Ma. Celsa de Jesús de la Torre Correa.

El matrimonio de don Casimiro de Luna y doña María Márquez, procreó, primero a José Luna Márquez, nacido en Torreón, Coah., el 18 de septiembre de 1914; Antonio Luna Márquez, nacido en Juanchorrey el 22 de mayo de 1916; a Juan Luna Márquez, nacido en Taf., Cal. U.S.A., el 16 de mayo de 1918; a Guillermo Luna Márquez, nacido en Williams, Arizona, U.S.A.; el 25 de junio de 1919; y Juana Luisa Luna Márquez, nacida en Backersfield, Cal., el 16 de agosto de 1922.

Después, don Casimiro de Luna se regresó a Juanchorrey y en segundas nupcias con doña Juanita Zúñiga, procrearon a Leopoldo, a Crescencio, a Lorenza, a Sarita, a José Isabel, a Emilia, a Andrés y Rebeca, todos Luna Zúñiga.

Ya mencioné las raíces zacatecanas del importante sabio doctor George Luna Meza, hijo de Juan Luna Márquez y Josephine Meza, nacida en El Paso, Texas, U.S.A. el 24 de octubre de 1919, que brilla con luz propia en la Universidad ya citada, quien ahora planea para julio próximo realizar un viaje a Extremadura, España, para conocer la tierra, en Almendralejo, de su ancestro el Lic. Diego Pérez de la Torre, que vino a la Nueva España con Cédula Real de Carlos V, en 1536 para residenciar a Nuño de Guzmán por sus crímenes cometidos en Michoacán, y como segundo gobernador de la Nueva Galicia.

El Dr. Luna contrajo nupcias con doña Úrsula Charlotte Kittler, nacida en Belzue, Alemania el 27 de diciembre de 1945. Tienen un hijo llamado Sascha Stefan Iwan Luna Kittler, nacido en Nuevo México, U.S.A., el nueve de marzo de 1969, titulado en la Universidad California Berkely, y ha trabajado por más de 11 años en una Compañía Industrial de Computación.

Mexicanos, cuyos hijos y nietos triunfan en los Estados Unidos y honran a sus mayores.

Mexican Immigrants plan to export Nopal
NCM, News Feature,  Compiled and Translated by Peter Micek, Jan 24, 2005

A group of Mexican immigrants in San Diego is focusing on slowing down the exodus to the U.S. by reviving the economy in their native Oaxaca. Their plan is to promote the export of home grown prickly pear cactus -- a celebrated Mexican delicacy.

SAN FRANCISCO - Jan 24, 2005 - The fleshy, desert-bred prickly pear cactus graces the signs of restaurants and taco stands across California. More Mexican eateries carry its Spanish name, "nopal", than the delicacy itself, which is mixed into scrambled eggs, burritos and exotic desserts in Mexico. Herbal health websites claim it fights diabetes and cholesterol. Culturally, the nopal flies on Mexico’s flag, lives in its folklore, and peppers its slang.

She found the freshly-cut cactus leaves in San Diego flea markets, said Norma de la Vega, a reporter for the San Diego Spanish-language weekly, Enlace. De la Vega reported recently on a group of Mexican immigrants in San Diego hoping to import the cactus from their native Oaxaca to the United States.

"They are talking about an enormous investment," de la Vega said in a telephone interview about the Coalition of Indigenous Communities from Oaxaca, or COCIO. The San Diego group hopes the plant will help energize the economy back home by creating jobs in Oaxaca and in California. The group met with an organization of Mexican women -- wives of men who have immigrated to the United States -- interested in selling the nopales they harvest in Oaxaca.

The Mexican government and various non-profits plan to invest in the project, according to the San Diego Union-Tribune. The group hopes to build a factory, then bottle and sell the cactus leaves -- once the large spines are taken out.

Made up of some 300 Oaxacan immigrants of the close to 25,000 that reside in San Diego, the Coalition is one piece of a puzzle hoping to create an industry around the cactus. The effort is part of a broader attempt to promote Mexican tradition and perk up the country's export economy.

Founded in 1994 in San Diego, "when two or three Oaxacans met in a church room," the fledgling coalition began with the objective to spread its traditions and create a fund for Oaxacans. They dreamed of creating "productive projects in Mexico to end the eternal exodus to the United States," said de la Vega in Enlace.

After an effort to import flowers from Oaxaca failed because of inadequate investment and low flower yields, the group sought other options. They contacted a Mexico City non-profit foundation that eventually put them in touch with the Oaxacan women harvesting nopales.

The most sustainable program the Coalition has backed is Guelaguetza, an indigenous celebration in San Diego County each summer. Some five thousand people attended last year’s festival, de la Vega said, and most of the thousands of dollars raised were sent to Oaxaca. The money was used to repair churches and schools, and to provide care for the elderly. The event also contributed to a fund for crop cultivation.

These works differ from the usual remesas, or remittances, that Mexicans in the United States send back to their native country, de la Vega said. "[Remesas] are not productive," de la Vega said. "They do not create jobs." Remittances to Mexico grew 25 percent last year, according to a Dallas, Tex., Spanish-language newspaper, Diario la Estrella, and exceeded $15 billion.

Whether the Coalition’s latest idea will create jobs is yet to be seen, de la Vega said. What is certain, though, is that the group is ready to move in a new direction.

When the Coalition was born in San Diego, many members believed they would one day return to Oaxaca, founding member Algimiro Morales, 51, told Enlace. Today, however, the group has "its roots firmly planted in this region," de la Vega said. And it wants to fight for the wellbeing of Oaxacans in California, as well as Mexico.

Along with the plan to produce nopales, the Coalition is considering becoming a non-profit group to open up new sources of funding. It recently held a workshop on immigrant health with the non-profit California-Mexico Health Initiative, according to Enlace.

There are hundreds of groups in Los Angeles with ties to their native communities in Mexico, said de la Vega. "Generally, what they are doing is getting political rights," she said. "But organizations for economic efforts," like the San Diego group, "I have not seen." The Coalition is the only one made up of Oaxacan natives in San Diego County, she said.

For the first time, the group elected a woman as coordinator. Alejandra Ricardez knows her Coalition’s members are no longer "immigrants," de la Vega said. "We say that we are going to return to Oaxaca, but the truth is that we are not going to do it, so we have to fight here," said Ricardez in de la Vega’s article. The fight in San Diego will now involve a partnership back home, where the wives of men who have gone north hope to generate income of their own.

In The Mix:  Mexican/Filipinos
From: Sent by Dorinda Lupe Moreno

Mariano, Charles wrote:

Don't know why I bother to send this, because there must be thousands of mixed Mexican/Filipinos in this world.  What difference is one voice?  I suppose since my fathers been gone for over twenty years now, that his time on earth is not even worth noting.  Then again, I know better.  All I have to do is sit still for a moment, and he comes home to me. 

John Ramos Mariano came to the United States from the Philippine Islands, joined the U.S. Navy, then afterwards attended college somewhere in Kansas.  He spoke Filipino, excellent English without an accent, and flawless Spanish. He bounced around the country, for reasons too vague to remember right now, and landed in Merced, a central valley town in California.  It was as if all that time before he drove into the city limits, didn't count.  His life, a lovely Mexican girl named Mary, and their six children, began from that point on.

"What town were you born in Daddy?"  I asked when I was about eight years old.  "Isabela, in the Philippines," he answered.  It sounded strange, exotic, and faraway.   He was about five foot five, dark-skinned, and thick calloused.  His hands were a constant amazement to me.  They were large, scaly, and cracked.  I called them alligator hands.  I'd rub them gently, try to soothe the pains away.   His appearance was like a deceptive shell to people who didn't know him.  Outwardly, he looked ragged and pitiful, due from working in the fields dusk to dawn.  Always disheveled, always dusty.   Deceptive, because he could disarm with a genuine warm smile and surprise you with intelligent conversation.  It took people by surprise.  Behind those dusty, twinkling eyes, was someone educated and extremely witty.   

We lived a poor, but split existence.  With Mama, it was full Mexican culture with all the sights, sounds and smells, right down to religion.  I was baptized catholic as a child.  Most of my friends and family were Mexican.  With Daddy, it was the unique language and rice at every meal.  It was the unforgettable excitement of pig feeds, where the pig was shot, then hung upside down to drain every drop of blood in a large pan.  The succulent meat mixed in that cooked blood with spices that makes my mouth water.  Daddy was Pentecostal, and I was baptized at fifteen.  A baptismal of choice, the air filled with the holy ghost.  We were the luckiest family ever.  The best of both worlds.     

Even when Daddy cleaned up, it was mostly clothes from the secondhand store.  "The willy-nilly," he used to call them.  Besides not really being able to afford new things, he hated wasting good money.  Sometimes he'd walk out of the willy-nilly with a full suit, two pairs of shoes, three dress shirts, belts and socks, and spend less than five dollars.  He would beam with delight like he'd robbed them and gotten away with it.  "Now we have money left to buy donuts," he smiled.  He'd point the old car home, and break into one of his favorite made-up songs along the way.  We'd all join in, swinging and singing loudly, "Chik Koree Chik, Chilaki Chilak, Aunt Jemimah, Kookala Boomba!!"  As soon as we got to Boomba, he'd reach over and tickle us.  

When I grew older and worked side by side in the fields with Daddy, I'd became more and more curious of his other life.  The one before us.  Why would someone as hardworking, and obviously educated as he, be working in the fields?  What had put him in this place with us?   

Daddy never lived in the same house as us.  He was always coming in before light to wake us, feed and send us off to school, before he trudged off to the fields.  There was a lot that was unspoken, accepted as routine in our house.  All my life, he never held my mother affectionately, never shared intimacy.  I could see the pain in his eyes in those early morning hours, as he glanced at the closed door of my mother's room.  Inside with her, always a different man.  But he never confronted, wouldn't raise his voice.  Daddy just looked away.  I really believe all the time and affection in his world, was transferred directly to us, and we never let up, drained every ounce. No matter how I shook it, it always pointed to my mother.  His greatest love, his most magnificent failure.   She broke his heart, practically killed him.  We kept him alive.  

When it came to Parent/Teacher conferences, Mama never attended.  Mama was rarely home, always out having a good time.  Daddy would come to every meeting, every event, straight from the fields, tired and caked in dust.  The only clean part of him was the feeble attempt to wash his hands and face.  My teacher in fifth grade Galen Clark Elementary, Mean Mrs. Meyers, ended class early for Parent/Teacher night and had those students with parents scheduled early, wait.  I dreaded Parent/teacher days.  Daddy would come, and he would definitely be dirty, and everyone would see him.  I faked an excuse to go to the bathroom and went outside I checked the parking lot.  Sure enough, there he was coming out of that clunky old pickup, stomping his boots hard on the pavement to knock off the dirt.  Patty Gomez walked by me and said, "Isn't that your father coming down the hall?"   I looked away angrily and said, "That ain't my father. I don't know who he is."  I went into the bathroom and stayed there a long time. 

Daddy, finally came out with Mrs. Meyers and they walked to the steps outside.  She was talking and smiling, and shaking his hand.  How could I ever face her or the other classmates?   Daddy looked around searching front and back, but didn't see me.  I slid to the back of the fence, climbed over and ran home about five blocks away.  I didn't want to face Mean Mrs. Meyers the next day, but had no choice.  To my surprise, she took me aside and raved about Daddy.  "Your father is the kindest, most charming man I have ever met. The fact that he came directly from the hot fields to take part in our Parent/Teacher meeting tells me he is an extraordinary father."  I expected to be punished, and instead was filled with a great sense of pride.  One other thing I felt, was strangely ashamed.   It was like that with every teacher, every conference.  Whenever they met him, they absolutely fell in love with him.  They knew, what I couldn't see at the time.  

It takes awhile for kids to see clearly, learn to appreciate.  You wake up one day, let it roll through your sleepy eyes, and suddenly there's tears.  I'd remember his rough hands.  Those loving, alligator hands.  Scene after scene of total pain and sacrifice unfolds.  He lived through, and inside us.  "Daddy, why aren't you a great success?  Why did you stay with her?  Why did you let us siphon every dime, every breath?"    

Finally, the most telling point of all, the realization that he was not our real father.  There were whispers.  Plenty of whispers from those, supposedly in the know, but we never let them get close to the wall of love and loyalty we'd built.  I am the middle child of six.  With each new birth, Daddy waited outside, gathered us in, gave his name.  He never blinked, when it came to raising us.  We were his children, no matter what anyone said.  To this day, every one of us will fight to the death, if you dare say otherwise.       

"Are you Mexican, or Filipino?" someone asked.   I could hear Daddy singing in my ear, "Chik Koree Chik, Chilaka Chilak, Aunt Jemimah, Kookala Boomba!!"     
"I am the best of both worlds."   c.mariano  1/21/05

Early Los Angeles Times articles, 
gathered by Karla Evertt,  
and distributed by 

Los Angeles Times, December 24, 1897:  SPANISH WEDDING

The wedding of Miss Sona Cuen, daughter of Mrs. Dolores C. Cuen, to Filiberto Romero took place last evening at the Plaza Church.  Escobar's orchestra furnished the music, and the ceremony was followed by a banquet at the residence of the bride's mother on Aliso street.  Among those present were:  Senoras Benito Valle, Miguel Montijo, Jose Mascarel, Albert Pryor, B. N. Olivas, Alfred Zuniga, L. Simond, Susana Montijo, Nathaniel Pryor, Francisco Gourdin, Alonzo Avila, Senorita Manuela Sepulveda, Frances Martinez, Rosita Pryor, Raquela Valle, Delfina Velez, Teresa Morales, Genevra Contrias; Senores Rafael Feliz, Rodolfo Martinez, Rodolfo Romero, Manuel Romero, George Polite, Albert Pryor, Frank Cuen, F. A. Contrias, Jose Valle, B. N. Olivas, R. F. Sepulveda, Alberto Velez, Arturo Cuen, Francisco Gourdin, Harry Fenton, Eduardo Moreno, Antonio Moreno, Alonzo Avila, J. B. Sanchez.

Los Angeles Times, Oct 16, 1898: DEATH OF MRS. DOMINGUEZ

Mrs. Josefa Dominguez, one of the founders of the pueblo of Los Angeles, passed away yesterday the home of her daughter, Mrs. M. S. de Sanchez.  Mrs.Dominguez was born in 1810.  In her youth she labored with the priests of San Gabriel mission for the uplifting of the people of Southern California. During her whole life she has been active in charitable affairs.  She leaves a large number of friends and relatives.  The funeral services will be held at 10 o'clock Monday morning.  The remains can be seen by friends after 7 o'clock Monday morning at Garrett's undertaking rooms.

Los Angeles Times, October 23, 1904: COLTON - SPANISH WEDDING

Father John Brady united a happy couple in marriage yesterday afternoon at 2 o'clock at the Catholic church in San Bernardino, the contracting parties being members of prominent Spanish families of Colton.  The bride was Miss Fannie Lacher and the groom J. Isaac Rodriguez.  The bride was accompanied to the alter by Miss Lucy Sanchez, while the groom was attended by David
Alvarado, both bridesmaid and best man being of Colton also.  After a short trip to Los Angeles and Santa Barbara, Mr. and Mrs. Rodriguez will be at home in Colton.

Los Angeles Times, Nov 14, 1907:

Death of Mrs. De Guyer Was Not Unexpected

Daughter of Manuel Dominguez and, With Her Five Sisters a Great Heiress, She was the Toast of Gallant Cavaliers in Old Mission Days.  Funeral is on Saturday.

Mrs. Ana Josefa Dominguez de Guyer, a famous belle and beauty of the old Spanish days of Los Angeles, died last evening at her home, No. 937 South Alvarado street.  She had been sick for some time and was 79 years old.  She was born in San Diego February 1, 1828.  She was the daughter of Manuel Dominguez, one of the foremost men of California in the old Mission times,
who owned immense tracts of land.

Miss Dominguez and her five sisters, were the toasts of all the gallant young cavaliers of those days and the family home, near Dominguez on the Long Beach car line, was the scene of many festivities in the old California fashion, when the front door was always open and every guest was doubly

Miss Dominguez was married first to Judge William Dryden, one of the pioneers and early judge of the local court, but after his death married Charles de Guyer.  Mrs. de Guyer was always one of the leaders in the exclusive Spanish society of Los Angeles and San Diego counties, though during the last years she lived a simple, retired life.

Upon the death of her father, Manuel Dominguez, Mrs. de Guyer and her sisters inherited the greater part of the old Rancho San Pedro, from which the harbor city of San Pedro takes its name, but which is better known now as the Dominguez Ranch.  Since then the six sisters have always resisted every inducement to subdivide their great holdings, but have held the family acres in common.

At one time thousands of head of half-wild cattle roamed over the unfenced acres of the rancho, but with the growth of the county and the increased value of the land between Los Angeles and the sea the range cattle have mostly disappeared and in their place have sprung up many smaller dairy
farms tenants of the sisters.

Just what the value of the lands held by the sisters can be, is something of a problem, but as there are over 25,000 acres still left them in the big ranch, beside other property, a conservative estimate places it at over $10,000,000. [[ in 1907!! ]]

There are many branches of this old Dominguez family in Southern California, but the immediate relatives of Mrs. de Guyer are her five sisters, Mrs. John F. Francis, Miss Guadalupe Dominguez, Mrs. M. D. Watson, Mrs. G. de Lamo and Mrs. Victoria Carson.

The funeral will be held at the family home at No. 937 South Alvarado street at 9 o'clock Saturday morning, and at 10 o'clock there will be a solemn requiem mass at St. Vibiana's Cathedral.  Burial will be in the family vault in Calvary Cemetery.  The pall bearers will be named today. 

Los Angeles Times, September 18, 1933:  FUNERAL TODAY FOR A. A. AVILA

Funeral services for Anastacio A. Avila of the old Los Angeles Avila family and San Quentin Prison guard since 1900, who died Thursday, will be conducted today at 8:15 a.m. at the Cunningham and O'Connor mortuary, 1031 South Grand avenue.  Requiem mass will be said at 9 a.m. at Our Lady of the Angels (the old Plaza) Church and burial will follow in Calvary Cemetery.

Avila, 72 years of age, was born in Los Angeles in 1861.  He leaves his widow, Mrs. Mabel Avila; a daughter, Miss Francesca Avila; three sisters, Mrs. Joseph A. Fraters, Mrs. Felipe Lugo, Jr., and Miss Carrie Avila, and two brothers, Alberto and Tomas Avila.

Baja California, Chapter Daughters of the American Revolution

Who are we?

Our chapter in Baja California is part of the largest women's organization in the US and one of the largest in the world, with 4 chapters in Mexico, 2 more in the works and we're growing all the time. We cover the area from Tijuana to Ensenada and welcome members from throughout Baja California.

We want to make a difference and serve the communities in northern Baja California, and our chapter projects include:

Giving scholarships for the secondary school youth in La Mision
Flying Samaritans volunteers, providing medical care in Baja's rural areas
Expanding Ensenada's public library
Cataloguing and indexing local genealogical records
Take a look at our chapter members and activities.

We do genealogy, family history, preserving historical sites and monuments, and promote education and patriotism. We are non-political and have women from every profession and interest. We have committees from Computers to Heritage, Conservation to Veterans, Public Relations to Indian education and heritage. We give DAR Scholarships for teachers, nurses, government, history and economics.

We own the largest female owned buildings in Washington, DC, the famous Constitution Hall across from the White House, and we support 6 schools around the country for underprivileged children. We have the second largest genealogy library in the US after the Mormons, and we have the largest museum in the world related to Revolutionary War memorabilia.

We have all ethnicities represented, and have been working on Mexican and California Mission History and preservation, and finding Mexican patriots who aided in the American Revolution.

In fact, we have a special task force researching Galvez, Serrato and their soldiers who aided the cause of liberty in the United States, for more information, contact chairman Donna J. Santistevan at 7830 S. Valentia Street, Englewood, CO 80112, (303) 694-4338,

If you are interested, or think your family history might go back to 1776 or before, take a look at our membership information.

We know how to do the family history, we want to meet you, work on Baja history, volunteer in area projects, and get together as a community. We have bi-monthly meetings from Tijuana to Ensenada, and we hope you will join us!!

E-mail Cristy Trembly for more information at

The Bandini Donation
by Sandra Manning
Source: Fedco Reporter, July 1995

By 1843, Juan Bandini, owner of the giant Rancho Jurupa, was beleaguered by both marauding Indians and renegade mountain men bent on raiding his livestock and whatever else could be pilfered from his vast holdings.

When ten New Mexican emigrant families moved west, Bandini offered their leader, Lorenzo Trujillo, land on the Jurupa "mesa" for a colony. The land, offered "conditionally," in exchange for their promise to defend the area against hostile intruders, became known as the "Bandini Donation."

The subsequent settlement of San Salvador occupied the east bank of the Santa Ana River between the modem cities of Riverside and Colton; keeping their promise the colonists defended the area. Three of Trujillo's sons were wounded in confrontations; the courage and fortitude of Lorenzo himself saved the life of "Benito" Wilson, future mayor of Los Angeles and a fighter of considerable reputation, wounded by a poisoned arrow.

By 1850 the land was declared free of marauders and the community of San Salvador drew the attention of its benefactor, Bandini, whose fortunes had suffered a serious reversal. Saddled by debt and encouraged by his son-in-law, Abel Steams, he reviewed his "conditional donation" to the New Mexicans. Contending that the land had never been theirs by deed, and they should either relinquish it or pay him compensation, he pressured the colonists until they agreed to pay him IVi cents per linear vara. When they complied, in effect buying the land for the second time, Bandini issued individual deeds and the question of ownership appeared settled.

The next 15 years brought peace and prosperity to San Salvador. But by 1868, title to the land was again questioned by none other than Abel Steams. In partial settlement of debts, Bandini had sold Steams the Jurupa Rancho. Attempting to seize the land which Bandini had twice conveyed to the farmers, Steams sued in the District Court. After S three years of litigation, the judge's decision " that "the settlers deserved the land; they had ^ exposed their lives for the title," ended the _ controversy. What was notable for that time, n; was that an Anglo-American judge upheld !±i the rights of a small group of New Mexican 0 farmers against one of the most powerful ^ Yankee landowners of the 19th century. 0 Though the settlers paid for this land with q blood as well as with money, history still "- recalls it as "the Bandini donation." 22 Sandra Manning is a free-lance writer from WhitSer.

Coroner Inquests can cause CA Death Index omissions during 1905-1915. If a death required a Coroner's Inquest, then a "Verdict of Coroner's Jury" resulted, AND NO DEATH CERTIFICATE was issued.  About 1915, the California death certificate was modified to allow for details of an inquest. If you haven't been able to find the deceased on the early CADI then maybe its because the inquest pre-empted the list.  Inquest files are kept by the county Coroner or Medical Examiner's office.  The inquest can be informative as to relatives and locations.  Source: 







11 de marzo al 25 de abril del 2005


LOCAL: The Kimball Art Center's  (Main Gallery)
638 Park Avenue, Park City, Utah 84060.

Para mayor información  llamar a los teléfonos 
(435 )649 8882 ó (801) 637 6452.
Princesa Inca/

Mara L. García, Ph.D.
Associate Professor of Spanish  American Literature
Department of Spanish & Portuguese, BYU
3150 Joseph F. Smith Building   Provo, Utah 84 602
(801)422-3106 E-mail




Pentland-Salcido Family
Soza Family History

Internet Networking 
New Releases by COLEF
Pluma Fronteriza
El Estatal

Anza & Cuerno Verde: Decisive Battle

The Anza Letters, Article 5

A Sonoran Family 

Sent by Johanna De Soto

Text from the introduction:
Bienvenidos. In the latter part of the 19th century Walter Pentland, an amateur photographer and mining engineer, worked in Mexico. Pentland, the son of a Scotish dentist who moved his family to Prescott, Arizona, in the 1850's, worked at mines throughout Mexico during his career. His career took him to Zacatecas, Aguascalientes, Jalisco, Nayarit, Sinaloa, and Sonora. 

A daughter, Edith, and son, Walter Jr., were born in 1910 and 1912 respectively. In 1929 Walter Sr. was in Caborca Sonora on business and renewed a friendship with a prominent local businessman, Don Manuel Salcido Cesma. The following summer, Walter Jr. worked for his father as a laborer in a mine near Caborca, receiving an education in mining, engineering and Spanish. 

Walter Jr. met Dolores "Nande" Salcido Rodríguez when working with Walter Sr. at the Juárez Mine, outside of Caborca in 1930. He had graduated from Phoenix Union High School and from there proceeded to Lamson Business College, which he continued to praise only months before his death. Walter Jr. and Nande were married September 23, 1939. Unfortunately, the wedding was delayed when Nande's brother, Manuel, was wounded a few weeks before the wedding date. Manuel survived his gunshot wounds and later become Municipal President. 

Walter Pentland, Jr., Walter IV, and Delia Salcido Rodríguez have graciously shared family photographs chronicling mining work in Mexico during the early 20th century. Images from photographs of their family history, as well, portray a story similar to that of others in the State of Sonora and the U. S. Southwest. We thank them for sharing it.
version 1.0 080602

Treaty and Purchase 
U.S. Military, Wagon Road, 
Homestead Act and Preemption 
Earliest Homesteaders 
Americans of Mexican Descent 
Desert Lands Act 
Application for Final Proof 
Affidavits of Contest 

Sent by Johanna De Soto

Mexican Homesteaders in the San Pedro River, Historic Past

Photographs and Endnotes are two of the resources. .

Historic Past: The San Pedro River Valley, is a long and narrow stretch of land, touched by history, but long under-utilized by Spanish, Mexican and Anglo settlement. Traveled, crossed and traversed by Cabeza de Vaca (1536) (though some historians dispute it); Fray Marcos de Niza (1538); Melchior Diaz (1539); Sixteen Century North America P/131 Francisco Vasquez Coronado (1540); and several times by Father Eusebio Francisco Kino (1696) to 1701. University of Arizona Press / Tucson 1987 P/32 The flags of Spain, France, Mexico and the United States, claimed this land, but the Apache aggressively resisted incursions into their valley. The American experience in the valley began as a consequence of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo of 1848 and the Gadsden Purchase of 1854. 

This brief recital of the valley's historic past spans 320 years from 1536 to 1856. Prior to 1865, only a handful attempted settlement of the area. Subsequent to the 1865 there was some activity in the valley, as one writer wrote in 1877 Rare Book # 152653, Huntington Library San Marino, California that "the San Pedro River, about 50 miles east of Tucson, in which the lateral valleys, are about 50,000 acres of good farming land, most of which can be successively cultivated." Another writer P/237, P/285 wrote about "the growing settlement where the stage road crosses at Tres Alamos, and that trading point is becoming one of importance.", and that a "farm belonging to Apodaca, whose ditch finished cost $1,000... "further down, Juan Borquez... has 18 acres of corn...Ruiz Mendoza...raised a large crop of wheat, barley and some corn and beans. ...the whole 20 miles down from Tres Alamos there is an abundance of water, grass, timber...". With a valley so promising, what hindered large scale settlement? 

The reluctance of settlers to come into the valley in any large numbers during the Spanish Colonial (pre-1821), Mexican (1821 -1856), and United States (1856 - 1880's) periods is generally and readily understandable, given the smallness of the Territory's population and the more menacing threat of Apache hostility.

In the Spanish Colonial period, the Apache roamed at will, "that by 1710 the Apache had cleared an area 250 miles wide for their exclusive occupation". resisted efforts to domesticate, resorted to raiding, plundering and pillaging from east to west and north to south into Mexico. Though the Apache dominated the area, the Sobaipuris were permitted to live and farm along the San Pedro River; but it was always at the sufferance of the Apache. Settlements to the west benefited from the "buffer" the Sobaipuris provided along the San Pedro. They served as a barrier between the Apache in the east, and the Spanish and Mexican settlements to the west, encompassing Tucson and south along the Santa Cruz River Valley.

In 1761, the Spanish Colonial authorities mandated the relocation of the Sobaipuris to the Santa Cruz valley to supplement the declining Indian population at the missions and to replenish their labor pool. 

The Indian population decline at the missions was attributed to a high death rate, and abandonment of mission life by the Indians. Hispanic Arizona 1536-185 P/39-40 This forced relocation adversely affected the security of the San Pedro valley. The Apache, unabated, controlled the length and breadth of the valley. They were unchallenged from the San Pedro River to the New Mexican border, and from the Gila River south into Mexico. For over 100 years, settlement and development of the valley, was not very attractive, nor conducive to Spanish, Mexican, nor to American settlements.

The Soza family is an excellent example of the presence of Mexican-Americans in the Tucson area for several generations, how their lives contributed to Tucson's cultural and economic history, and to their on-going love for our community. The Soza's history is one of a pioneer family that settled and homesteaded in the Sonoran Desert, and later turned to the city. Happily, Soza family members, led by Edward Soza, chronicled and compiled a family history. Mr. Soza's first print version appeared in 1996 under the title of Arizona Pictorial Biography: Antonio Campa Soza 1845-1915. A deluxe edition containing added and repositioned photos was printed in February 1997. On October 27, 1997, Mr. Soza reported that "the U. S. Copyright Office has issued Certificate of Registration TXu 791-067 for the above title."    

Internet Networking 
From: Cruz Perez Plano, Tx
To: Michael Connolly Terrazas

I enjoyed you post on you trip to Chihuahua City and the connections you made with you genealogical history. I am not surprised that you had not heard of your ancestry ties to El Sr Coronel Juaquin Terrazas. The history of these people and their times is not thought in our schools even though they had significant impact in the development history of the American Southwest, especially the states of New Mexico and Arizona.

I grew up in Hurley,Grant County, New Mexico and among my school mates were great grand children of Col. Terrazas . One of these, Roger Terrazas, a retired FBI agent lives in El Paso, Tx.

Click on (or copy to the URL bar) the following for a brief history of Terrazas and the famous Indian Apache Chief, Victorio. My maternal Grandfather, Roque Ramos was a child captive of the Apache people in New Mexico. "

New Releases by COLEF: Paso del Nortec, etc. 
Dear Professors and Librarians:
Colegio de la Frontera (and 6 other publishers) just released Paso del Nortec. This is Tijuana!!, a bilingual book on NORTEC music. The publication of this book is truly an event. It includes everything about the music, the border, border images, art, chronology, interviews. I do not even like NORTEC music but I loved the book. It may be the best book published in Mexico in recent times. Academic and Public libraries will have a hard time keeping this title in the library. The other three titles by Colegio de la Frontera are also in stock are ready for shipment.

Paso del Nortec. This is Tijuana!
Author: Valenzuela, José Manuel
Publisher: Trilceediciones, Conaculta, Oceano, El Colef, UNAM, Conaculta-Cecut, IMDJ
ISBN: 9686842411, Year: 2004 Price: $35.00

Thank you, Edgardo Moctezuma
289 3rd. Avenue, Chula Vista, CA 91910
tel. (619) 426-1226, fax (619)426-0212 

Pluma Fronteriza

[[ Editor: I was sent a file of  the Winter issue of Pluma Fronteriza and the following message. It is a wonderful publication. If you have heritage in the El Paso/Cd.Juarez, Chihuahua/Las  Cruces, NM,
I urge you, that you contact the Editor,  Raymundo Eli Rojas who wrote: ]]

We have attached the Winter issue of Pluma Fronteriza honoring Lalo Delgado  and Ricardo Aguilar. We only included a small "Libros, Libros" section  dealing with Mesoamerica in this issue due to space constraints. However, we  will send a "Libros, Libros" supplement next wek.

Pluma Fronteriza is a free publication on news about Chicano and Latino writers from the tri-state region of El Paso/Cd.Juarez, Chihuahua/Las Cruces, NM. It is also a good reference for librarians, booksellers, scholars, and writers since we also published the most up-to-date list of new books in Chicano and Latino literature. We have also attached our "Libros, Libros" Extra Labor Issues that we sent out at the beginning of the year. Please open these documents with Adobe Acrobat Reader. Thanks.

Sincerely,  Raymundo Eli Rojas, Editor 

El Estatal, another publication.To receive information on Chihuahua, 
Good assortment of articles, but I could not find the URL for El

Anza and Cuerno Verde: Decisive Battle

Ed Quillen is the editor and publisher of the Colorado Central Magazine and a columnist for the Denver Post.  He reviewed the second edition of the book, Anza and Cuerno Verde: Decisive Battle, and wrote as follows in the February 2005 issue of the Magazine.

"Late in 2001, retired Pueblo educator Wilfred Martinez used the first edition of Anza and Cuerno Verde to announce his discovery of the site for the 1779 battle between  two great leaders: the Jupe Comanche chief Cuerno Verde (Green Horn) and Lt. Col. Juan Bautista de Anza, governor of New Mexico..............Martinez is now 'ninety-nine point nine percent certain' that he's found the site..............There's much more in this 138-page book, including a quick general history of both the Spanish empire and the Plains Indians............The first edition of Decisive Battle was a surprising pleasure for me, and this one {the second edition} is better. Your Anza collection will not be complete without this book."

The price for the book is $16.95 plus $2, send your check for $18.95 to:
Wilfred Martinez 
113 Fordham Circle, Pueblo, CO  81005             


The Anza Letters
Article Five
Phil Valdez, Jr.

Letter number thirteen was written at Mission San Gabriel on May 02, 1776, prior to departing on his southward journey. By now Anza appears to have solved his problems with Commander
Rivera in not being able to communicate in regards to the founding of the presidio and its missions. He now writes,

"My Dear Sir,
Your Honor’s official communication of yesterday’s date, which you directed to me at ten o’clock last night, leaves me completely satisfied that you are in agreement with my suggestion concerning  the establishment of the port of San Francisco.

Anza's portrait at the Governor's Palace 
in Santa Fé, New Mexico

Mountain Lake where Anza 
camped below the Presidio.

Approximately the site of the 
Rio Santa Anna Crossing.

In this way, I recognize we can inform His Excellency. Indeed, there is no doubt that when confirmed [the presidio] will remain completely secure. In fact in can be defended with muskets and any [ship] can be observed in time. On the contrary any ship desiring to enter [the bay] will not be able to do so. With regards to the Dolores fountain or spring of water, it is situated (as I said in my first communication), two leagues from the mouth of the port and is so well hidden that until the [ship] is inside the port, the ship will not be seen entering nor the arrival towards it."

Muchisimo Senor Mío,

El oficio de Vuestra Merced de fechca de aier que me diregio a las diez dela noche me dessa [deja] con toda satisfaccion por combenirse con mi dictamen sovre el establessimiento del Puerto de San Francisco. De cuio modo conosco que la daremos á Su Excellancia. Pues no hai duda que verificandose assi queda asegurado enteramente: Pues á fucilassos se puede defender, y obcervar con tiempo á qualquier embarcacion, que se quiera introducer: lo que no se conseguia delo contrario.


page 2
Attento a que en la Fuente, y ojo de agua de los Dolores, esta retirado, (como digo en primer dictamen) dos leguas de la Boca, y está tan oculta que hasta estar dentro del Puerto la embarcacion, no se obcervaria Su entrada, ni menos su venida á el.

Anza continues, "At the foot of the white cliff, where I placed the cross, I judge there are fairly deep springs from where water will not be lacking even in the driest of time.

Less than a quarter of a league towards the south, and where I had camped, is another good laguna [now called Mountain Lake] from which a good spring flows (como un buey). Corporal Robles saw one to the southwest during the past dry spell but [we] do not know whether it is running or not. And in about a league there is another one running and is the one which I have mentioned to Your Honor and a dam can be built with very little work. It has clear land which will provide for the cattle, and where gardens can be planted. Furthermore, there are two others in between this site and the fort, with others close by, however, even if well maintained, they will not be permanent."

Al pie del Cantil blanco donde pusse la cruz, jusgo que en posos poco hondos; no puede faltar abundancia de agua buena en la maior seca. Amenos de un quarto de legua al sur, y donde yo estube acampado, esta otra buena laguna de laque salia [como] un buey, y esta corriente, ó no, me disse el Cavo Robles vio aunque largo en la seca passada al sur este. Y á como una legua esta otra que tambien corrie, y es la que tengo oho [dicho] á Vuestra Merced. Se puede atajar con mui poco trabajo, y con solo tierra, para que sirva á los ganados, y para hacer algunas huertas. Amas de ellos hai otras dos intermedias ála propia, y al Fuerte como tambien otros veneercitos, vien que regulo no serán permanentes

In mentioning the water supply Anza says, "In such circumstances, of which I do not judge, the necessary water for the fort will not be lacking as I have stated. It would be sensible and noble to not establish it at a place where it was not thought of, [thereby], resulting in higher costs. In view of these grave and important considerations and so that use can be made of these great advantages, a few trivial faults, can be tolerated. However, the necessary maintenance of the troops is essential anywhere the King sends them. [Therefore], for the greatest security, of all indicated, it seems conducive to me that before Your Honor gives orders to Lieutenant Moraga, so that in the proper way, he should go re-work (for the primary needs of the establishment) the referred waterholes (aguas). There is no doubt that if you hurry you will avail yourself (consiga) of him, to the contrary, he will free you from the attention the situation may require and perhaps frustrate the intent [which is] so important to the service of the King and the security of his dominions."

En tales circumstancias; y la deque no jusgo que falte como hé oho (dicho), la agua pressisa al Fuerte. Heria [seriá] sencible, y notable no se establesieve donde consiga el fin para lo que es creado; y resuelto á esspensas de tantos gastos: en cuias graves é [y] importantes consideraciones, y por conseguir tan altas ventajas, se pueden tolerar algunas leves faltas: pues la esscencial dela manutencion pressisa para la Tropa, la cuenta esta segura donde quiera que el Rey la destine. Para maior seguridad de todo lo indicado, me parce será conduccente el que quanto antes dirissa [dirija] Vuestra Merced ordenes al Theniente Moraga para que del propio modo, passe á retancar (por primera providencia del establessimiento) las aguas referidas: pues no dudo que hiendo pronto lo consiga, y con ello [el] se liverte del cuidado que lo contrario puede caussar, y tal vez fustrar este intento tan interessante al servicio del Rey, y seguidad assu dominios

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Nuestro Señor Guarde á Vuestra Merced Muchos Años, San Gabriel y Maio 2 de 1776

Beso la Mano de Vuestra Merced Su Mui Seguro Servidor

Juan Bautista de Anza, rubrica

The first page of Anza’s letter # 13

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Letter number fourteen was written after his arrival in the vicinity of the Rio de Santa Anna and Anza writes, "In response to the second paragraph of the [letter] of Your Honor dated on this date, I say that even though I do not have as many years in serving the king as you informed me in your letter, from the time I had the honor of starting this present assignment I have pride myself in what is the most proper (like all your servants should do) and which is dictated by the learned. Never have I mixed my personal affairs with those of official business, as Your Honor has done in his years of service and experience. Because of what I am going to say in this [letter] it is not official (and yes you may present it anywhere you like). In one of my letters of the 29th of last month, if Your Honor has not yet burned it, I asked that you do not touch (toque) the subject, so that it does not interrupt our communications pertaining to the service, also excuse the delivery of my considerations to your statements of the twenty-eighth of March and the second of April of the present year. I was intending to keep them but now that the occasion arises I will include them because what is in them infers what was suspected previously. Your schemes are discovered and confirm the present situation (which has already been foreseen). This act being so honorable for Your Honor not to let His Excellency know in a letter and only remembering this unequalled Superior Officer and Commander in the Kingdom in a postscript. Likewise, this act affirms Your Honor’s highly exaggerated years, experiences, and like faults, which on the contrary, are like deceptions to those who understand them."

Muchismo Señor Mío,

En contesstaccion del segundo capitulo dela de Vuestra Merced de fecha de este dia digo: que aunque no tengo tantos años de servir al Rey como Vuestra Merced me dice en la misa: desde que tube el honor de comenzar la carrera propia; procuré el instruhirme enlo mas comun: (como es devido á todo sirviente Suio) en cuia inteligencia nunca hé mesclado mis asumptos particulares, con los de oficio; como Vuesta Merced lo essecuta con Sus años de servicio, y essperiencia; por loque le dire en esta: que no es de oficio ( y si para que la pressente donde guste) que si Vuestra Merced por no hechar fuego a una de mis tres cartas de 27 del passado, enque lepido no se toque este asumpto; yo por que no se interrumpiese nuestra comunicasion. en lo perteneciente al servicio, tambien escuse,el entregarle mi respuesta a sus mistas de Veinte, y ocho de Marzo y dos de Abril del presente año, las que havia hecho animo deguedar me con ellas; pero á hora que da ocassion selas incluyo, para que de Su contenido infiera lo anteceden que estan descubiertas Sus massimas, las que confirma la pressente ocacion (que ya tambien se havia barruntado) con el hecho tan honrrosso para Vuestra Merced como es no dirissirle [en] una cartta a Su Excellencia , y solo acordarse de este sin igual Superior y Jefe en el Reyno, en una posdata: Cuio hecho igualmente acreditan los años y esperiencias de Vuestra Merced tan decantadas como fallidas, por mas que comprehenda lo contrario.

Here Anza appears to be chastising the Captain Commander when he says, "It will not be easy to excuse yourself from the way you acted at our encounter, which you also credit to your years of service, but I do not know how since they are not reflected in your actions.

I am an officer of higher rank who has completed most of the commission in which I have been sent, and will continue between now and when my statement will be received. My greetings were not properly completed when Your Honor kicked your mule


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(with or without a spur which does not enter the case) and after the great rudeness of marching off claiming that I implored, interrupted, or detained you.

For your greater satisfaction Your Honor wishes to attribute it to the effects of your sickness. You did not mention it in your previous letter which is proper and very ordinary. I have had the honor of having ascended [to his present rank], (not by the echelon of a simple soldier), but [because of having] communicated with officials of distinguished and illustrious classes and although in minor capacity I discern the treatment of one and the other. For it does not take much, after the said dispute, to excuse oneself from concurring with Your Honor. For it would be to excuse the worst in which, without a doubt, Your Honor would be the loser." Here Anza eludes to the fact that Captain Rivera, as Captain Commander of Alta California, was his superior in California, even though of a lower rank.

No le será facil desculparse del hecho de nuestro encuentro, en que tambien acreditto Su años de servicio; que no se como no hán reflessado, que siendo yo official de maior grado, teniendo ya compuida [concluida] la mas de mi comicion aque hé sido embiado: pues ya en esta ocassion, hasta mi dictamen havia recivido; no bien haverle acabado de saludar quando le picó á Su mula, (con espuela, ó sin ella, que esto no viene al casso) y marcharse Vuestra Merced pretende que yo le ruegué, rompa, ó le detenga, despues de esta grave impolitica: Por mas de que Vuestra Merced quiera atribuhirla á efecto de su enfermeda; no queda si no en la anterior que le es propio, y mui comun. Hé tenido el honor de haver acendido, (no por el escalon de simple soldado), y comunicar con oficiales De distinguidas y Ylustres clases; y assi aungue de cortto alcanse se dicermir el trato, de unos a otros: Conque no es mucho que despues del lanze referido, escusase concurrir con Vuestra Merced para escusar los peores, enque sin duda Vuestra Merced seriá el perdido.

Anza continues, "You also tell me that you follow superior orders the same as I do. Although, Your Honor takes the opportunity to tell me you never held my rank. However, if you would listen to others who do not affirm Your Honor the contrary will be confirmed. As for me I say that I have known and do know since I read your letters of March and April that those whom I brought here will have to remain disappointed after having been directed to the important Port and Missions of San Francisco. Heaven would desire if in my wisdom, I had not been in such a hurry to put the plan into effect, that I should turn my back on it, and that I should not defer for more time like that which you lured me into, with the scare at San Diego, where the Indians were not armed, were without leadership at all tiimes (although Your Honor feared them so) and were asking for peace, and that by the incomparable compassion of our Sovereign, has been granted with less judgment to others, who with more skill, have been unfaithful and apostates of the church and religion, and of whom he is justly flattered to be your main defender."

Tambien me dice, que igualmente que lo obcerva las Ordenes Superiores aungue nunca en mi grado, tomese Vuestra Merced tiempo para decirlo: pues si se olle, á otro que no sea a Vuestra Merced lo contrario se verificara; y por mi se decir que hé conosido y conosco, desde que lei Su cartas sitadas de Marzo y Abril hubieran quedado fustradas las que le hé condusido, y antes se le dirissieron para el Importante Puerto y miciones de San Francisco si Yo con mi inutlidad no hubiera apurado tanto por Su efecto: quiera el Cielo que ya que boltes la espalda, no lo difiera para mas largo tiempo que elque me

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tiene insinuado con el espantajo de San Diego, quando los Indios desarmados, ni direccion en ningun tiempo (aque tanto temé Vuestra Merced) estan pidiendo la paz, que la incomparable Piedad de nuestro Soverano, se las há concedido con menos justancias á otros, que con mas conocimiento le han sido Ynfidentes y Apostatas á la Iglecia, y Religion de quien se lisongea justamente será Su maior Defensor.

Nuestro Señor Guarde á Vuestra Merced Muchos Años Ynmediaciones del Rio de

Santa Anna, y Maio 3, de 1776

Beso la Mano de Vuestra Merced Su Mui Seguro Servidor

Juan Bautista de Anza, rubrica

First page of Anza's letter # 14

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The final carta (number fifteen) was written in the vicinity of the Santa Anna River as well, where Anza says, "At six thirty in the evening of this day, I have received Your Honor’s letter dated the same day, which was delivered by Corporal Carrillo.

[This letter] leaves me to understand the motive behind why you did not sent me any correspondence for His Excellency and expect me to inform this gentleman of the same, (as you charge me in your postscript). I will execute it with a lot of apprehension, even though I am not the one who has committed this remarkable error. Indeed, I have provided Your Honor with enough time to write (and much more with what I sent yesterday morning with Sergeant Grijalva). You have not been lacking in any time to inform His Excellency of what is proper, which you charge me by means of a letter. We are not taking any [letters from you] to His Excellency. *Nor do I have any thing official (in regards to the said Most Excellent Lord and my honor) and could carry a loose one (una suelta) which could accompany mine addressed to the Father Guardian of San Fernando in Mexico which is attached." *This statement is not in concert with what Anza says in prior letters, where he informs Rivera that he will tell all. See, the Anza Letters, Article Two, September 2004 Somos Primos.,

A las seis, y media de la tarde de este dia, hé resivido la [carta] de Vuestra Merced de fecha del mismo, que me entrego el Cavo Carrillo, por laque quedo entendido del motivo que le acompaña para no dirigirme ninguna carta para Su Excelencia y deimponer á este Señor del mismo: (como me encarga en Su posdata) lo que ejecutaré con bastante somorrojo mio, sin embargo deque no soi Yo el que cometo, tan remarcable herror: pues al menos con el tiempo que hé dado á Vuestra Merced para escrivirle (y mucho mas con lo que le embié ádecir aier mañana con el Sargento Grijalva) no le faltava [tiempo] para decirle lo propio, que ámi me encarga por medio de una cartta.

No llebanos [llevamos] ninguna para Su Excelencia tampoco tengo por conducente

(al respecto de oho [dicho] Señor Exelentisimo y mi honor) conducer una suelta que acompañara la mia para el Padre Guardian de San Fernando de Mexico, que es adjunta.

Nuestro Señor Guarde á Vuestra Merced Muchos Años, Ynmediaciones del Rio de Santa Anna, y Maio 3, de 1776

Beso la Mano de Vuestra Merced Su Mui Seguro Servidor


Juan Bautista de Anza, rubrica


Colonel Anza’s visit to California was short and little did he know that from that small seed was to grow the fifth largest economy in the world. Did I say little did he know?

Somehow I bet he knew. On May 13,1776, el Gran Capitan, with his faithful companion, the meticulous Padre Pedro Font, on their journey back to Sonora, crossed the Colorado River and with this crossing passed one of the most historical, but forgotten figures of the state of California,
Military Governor, Don Fernando Javier de Rivera y Moncada.


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Hoja de Servicio del Coronel Juan Bautista de Anza al fin de 1783

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While, numerous articles have been written about Juan Bautista de Anza, little is known about Don Fernando, other than his Military Governorship of Alta California from May 25, 1774 through February 3, 1777. When he says in his diary, "Monterrey y mayo 25 de 1774, en este dia tomé posesión de mi empleo por mi antecesor don Pedro Fages, de capitán comandante de estos establecimientos por su Majestad", and that well remembered frightful day on the Colorado River, of July 18, 1781.

Born about 1725, in or near Compostela, en La Nueva España, he received the baptismal name of Fernando Javier. He frequently refers to the fact that he became a soldier in 1742, serving his Majesty among the Indians. His career was to be that of a soldier for the rest of his life.

His military career began in Baja California in 1742. When the captain of the Presidio of Loreto, Bernardo Rodriquez Lorenzo, died in 1750, he was appointed Captain Commander of the Presidio of Loreto and the entire peninsula (1751). A royal decree from Madrid, dated September 11, 1752, confirms the Viceroy’s request for Rivera’s appointment as captain, the equivalent of military governor of Baja California.

At about the same time he was appointed captain of the Loreto Presidio (1750), he married Doña Maria Teresa Davalos y Patrón. Their marriage was blessed with one daughter Isabel, and three sons, Juan Bautista, Jose Nicolas Maria, and Luis Gonzaga Francisco Javier Maria. The only daughter, Isabel, died at a young age, while attending the Colegio of San Diego, in the City of Guadalajara, shortly after he left to take command of Alta California. The oldest boy, Juan Bautista, followed an ecclesiastical career, and with help from his brother, Ambrosio Miguel de Rivera y Moncada, chaplain of the Santuario de Nuestra Señora de Gudalupe in Guadalajara, after his ordination became the parish priest of the church in the town of La Madalena, near Guadalajara.

The Rivera y Moncada family remained together until the latter part of 1773, when he was appointed military governor of Alta California and at that time were living on a small farm near Guadalajara. When Rivera set out for Monterrey, his brother Ambrosio generously shouldered the maintenance of the entire family, sending Isabel to the Colegio of San Diego in Guadalajara, and the oldest son, Juan Bautista, to the diocesan seminary in the same city, and probably educating the two other boys as well.

With the Russian threat to the security of Alta California and it not yet settled by any Europeans, Spain decided on assuring its possession in that area to the north, by sending a four prong expedition, two by land and two by sea. The first entrada was commanded by Rivera y Moncada with his 27 soldados de cuera, in which Juan Bautista Valdez was a was a soldado de cuera, followed by the better known Gaspar de Portolá who was the expedition’s Commander in Chief and in which group included the Father President Juniper Serra.

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On July 14, 1769 Portolá, Rivera, Fages, Constansó, 27 leatherjacket soldiers, six volunteers of Cataluña, seven muleteers, fifteen Lower California Indians, Father Crespi, Francisco Gomez, and perhaps Paje, Father Crespi’s Indian servant, set out from San Diego reaching Monterrey on October 1, 1769. They failed to recognize that port and continued to the San Francisco bay area, where they realized there mistake and set out on there return trek reaching San Diego on January 24,1770. Here the ship, San Antonio, laden with supplies pulled into port, San Diego was saved, and the explorers proceeded north for the second time and established Monterrey on June 03 1770.

In 1780, the Viceroy tagged him to recruit
soldier/settlers for what was to become the cities of Los Angeles and San Barbara. It was during this expedition, after having arrived at the
Colorado River, in July of 1781, and after having sent the soldier/settlers forward to California, that the Quechans revolted and killed most of the men including Rivera, Father Garces, and took the women and children prisoners. On October 18, 1781, Lt.Colonel Pedro Fages says, Se reconozio el sitio donde mataron al capitan Rivera con algunos que le acompañavan, cuyos cuerpos ya se havien consumido; pero no se dejo de conozer el del difuntto Moncada por la quebradura que tenia el en la espinilla de una pierna.

Father Garces statue at La Concepción

"We identified the site where Captain Rivera [y Moncada] and some of his companions were murdered. Their bodies were now decomposed, but that of Moncada was unmistaken ably identified by the broken shin bone in one of his legs." Colonel Fages buried the Captain in a Christian burial on the south bank of the Colorado River in what is now Yuma Arizona. On Oct. 19, 1781, the Lt. Colonel says, "Este dia mande recoger, los huessos del difuntto Capitan Rivera y Moncada los que se enterraron." Today I ordered that the bones of the deceased Captain Rivera y Moncada be gathered and they were interred.

From my exploration the site faces the granite pilar and is across from the Saint Thomas Indian School or La Purísima Concepción on the north bank of the river. For more on Rivera’s leg pain see the Anza Letters, Article Four, January issue, Somos Primos.

La Concepción on the Colorado River

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The Captain’s own Words

El año de 1751 me honró el excelentísimo señor Conde de Revillagigedo con el bastón de capitán comandante de la California. Hallábame yo en la edad de 26 a 27 años y aunque acompañado de los brios naturals de hombre mozo, *[mestizo] logré la felicidad de gobernar aquella provincial toda a satisfaccion de los excelentísimos señores Virreyes, lo que probaría con sus cartas. Confundeme igualmente que habiendo obtenido el bastón en la edad dicha y gobernado aquella tierra en paz y quietud, sucedió que el año de 1768 entró el gobernador don Gaspar de Portolá al Presidio de Loreto y héchose cargo del gobierno y disciplina en que encontró a los soldados, no experimenté que en desaprobación me reprendiese con una sola palabra.

Mes [Mas] después entro el ilustrísimo señor visitador general don Jose de Galvez, y no mereciéndole reprensión minima, antes bien le debí sobrado favor en aprobación para lo que puede sevir que, habiéndosele ofrecido el empeño de estos descubrimientos, me

mandó a ellos lleno de honra, confiriéndome facultades de las que en la actualidad en uso residían en su Ilustrísima; me la confirió igualmente para que, segun las cosas tuviera presente pudiera variar en algunas de sus instrucciones.

Después de haberme retirado y asentado en uno de los rincones de la Nueva Galicia merecí últimamente que el excelentísimo señor Virrey me mandase de comandante a estos establecimientos, en donde he obrado y ejecutado lo major y más conveniente que he considerado y después de todo y en edad madura he padecido la desgracia en ser desaprobado mi proceder.

As mentioned previously, the putting together of these short articles requires the help and input of many, therefore, I will like to continue to acknowledge Californio descendant Gregorio Bernal Smestad Ph.D, Vladimir Guerrero Ph.D, Donald T.Garate, Chief of Interpretation at Tumacacori National Historical Park, José Pantoja, City Historian, City of San José, California and last but not least, Californio descendant Mary T. Ayers,

[Josef Manuel Valenzuela]for her help in the transliteration of carta number one written at Puerto Real San Carlos or campsite number 55 in what is now Anza, California.

Also Margaret Wellman Jaenke of the Hamilton Museum in Anza, California for her help in opening the doors at Puerto Real San Carlos (the Gary Ranch) and driving me to the ridge that Anza mentions on his diary.

Jason Taylor, Head Golf Professional, for driving me to the Santa Anna River crossing where Anza crossed on December 31, 1775 and again on May 03 1776, located within the Jurupa Hills Country Club, which his family owns.


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Danita M. Rodriquez, Supervising State Park Ranger, for her help at Gaviota Beach where the expedition went through, and Chuck Lyons, Public Relations Director, for his help at Mission San Gabriel de Arcangel. To all many thanks.

Sources: The main source, for the five articles, were the fifteen cartas written by Lt. Colonel Juan Bautista de Anza and addressed to the Military Commander of Alta California Captain Fernando Javier de Rivera y Moncada.

Augmented by:  Anza’s California Expeditions, the Five Volumes, by California’s immanent historian Herbert Eugene Bolton, 1928

Diario Del Capitan Comandante Fernando Javier de Rivera y Moncada transliterated by Ernest J. Burris. S. J., Ediciones Jose Porrua Turanzas, Madrid, España

José Velásquez, Saga of a Borderland Soldier, by Ronald L. Ives, 1984

A History of California, The Spanish Period, by Charles E. Chapman, 1921

On the Trail of a Spanish Pioneer, The Garces Diary, 1775/76 by Elliott Coues, 1900

The Colorado River Campaign, 1781-1782, Diary of Pedro Fages, Herbert Ingram Priestley 1928

Anza and the Northwest Frontier of New Spain, by J.N. Bown & R. F. Heizer, 1964

*Mestizo - Fernando Javier de Rivera y Moncada, Spanish Bluecoats, Sanchez, Joseph P. University of New Mexico 1990.

*Mestizo- Nuttall, Donald A. Pedro Fages and the Advance of the Northern Frontier of New Spain, 1767-1782 pages 168- 169. Ph.D diss. University of Southern California Los Angeles 1964.

Look for more to come with the article, the Spanish Myth, A descendant’s prospective. This article refutes the belief that the Spanish founded Alta California. Phil Valdez Jr., MBA, CHA @


Black Migration Focus of  Project 
200 African-American newspapers
Black Hispanics  Black & Hispanic
Afro-Mexican Racial/Ethnic Identity 

Black Migration Focus 
of Education Project 
By Pat Milton, 
Associated Press Writer NY
AP photo,/David Karp

Sent by Mercy Bautista-Olvera

At the start of Black History Month, the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture announced the creation of an education project focusing on black migration over the past 400 years. The project, which includes a new Web site, will give the public access to articles, photographs, maps and historic documents — including a letter from President Lincoln in which he writes about sending blacks to Haiti. 

Entertainer Harry Belafonte, who got his start in a basement theater at the original Schomburg center in Harlem, said Tuesday that the "In Motion: The African-American Migration Experience" project will help people learn about the "profound impact the African-American has had in shaping the culture and history" of the United States. 

"This Web site documents our journey," said Belafonte, who immigrated from the Caribbean island of Jamaica and worked as a janitor in Harlem before becoming an actor and singer. "It will help us get on with the business of understanding who are, make us become more prideful and for the rest of the world to understand what they have done to us, for us and with us." 

Besides the Web site, the project includes a book, published by National Geographic (news - web sites), and 100 lesson plans for schools. 

The Web site has 17,000 pages of text from books and manuscripts, 8,000 photographs and 65 maps, many specially designed to trace international and domestic migration patterns of approximately 35 million blacks and their ancestors. 

For example, someone interested in Virginia can click on a map and follow the journey of runaway slaves from a plantation to the cities, said Dr. Sylviane Diouf, the project's manager.  "This is an invitation to every person of African descent in the United States to revisit their families' migration histories," Diouf said. 

The project, funded by a $2.4 million federal grant, breaks down the major movements of people of African descent into, out of and within the United States into 13 categories. 

It also offers a new interpretation of African-American history: The first Africans arrived in South Carolina, Texas and Florida in the early 16th century — almost a century before the 1619 Jamestown settlement, said Howard Dodson, director of the Schomburg center. 

The Schomburg Center is a research unit of the New York Public Library. It was founded in 1911 by Arthur Schomburg, a collector of African-American books. For the past 80 years the center has collected and preserved materials documenting black life.

200 African-American newspapers
The media firm Amalgamated Publishers and Ninestars  Information Technology Ltd. have announced a project to digitize  the archives of more than 200 African-American newspapers--
many older than 100 years--and make them available online. 

It might be difficult to find information on your African-American  ancestors in mainstream newspapers because many didn't  thoroughly cover black communities. And frequently under-funded 
black newspapers had little means to preserve their historical  information, so microfilmed copies are hard to come by. 

Eventually, you'll be able to access an online portal to fully  searchable article archives for each paper. The article database  will work similarly to others, such as the New York Times. Searches will be free, but you'll pay to see the full article. 

Black Hispanics - Black and Hispanic

Bruno Diaz, Midland (TX) Reporter-Telegram (February 14, 2005)

Sent by Dorinda Lupe Moreno

"The NAACP works for the benefit of all minorities, regardless of race" dutifully stated Yolanda Smith, executive director for the Houston branch of the decades-old civil rights association.

Her befuddlement is one many Americans share, whenever confronted with a reality that defies Hollywood-style stereotypes: Hispanics come in all colors and shapes. There are Asian Hispanics, white Hispanics, black Hispanics and even Latino Hispanics, as roughly 20 million people defined themselves, puzzled by the "race question" in the 2000 U.S. census.

But for the roughly 1 million black Hispanics who live in America, the question of their racial identity is one that pops up continuously along their lives, and not only once every 10 years during censuses.

"When people realized that my accent didn't match my face, they asked me where I was from. And when I told them that I was from the Dominican Republic, and that I spoke Spanish -- therefore my accent -- I always got this 'wow!-that-is-weird!' kind of look" recalled Eddy Bello, an electrical engineer who is now the manager of his wife's pediatric clinic in Odessa.

Back in the Dominican Republic, Bello's African heritage was a cultural undertone rather than a racial profile. It surfaced here and there, in the beat of merengue -- a very popular Caribbean genre -- in the spices of the country's most typical foods, in its literature, and, yes, in the white-on-black smiles of friends and relatives.

Having been born in New York to a Puerto Rican family, Ronald Flecha is, at the same time, Hispanic and black. Since the African heritage is especially strong in the Caribbean, Flecha thought that his genes and his ancestry would save him from being discriminated by other blacks. But he was wrong.

"When I was in the Army's basic training, back in 1968, I got caught in the middle of two discriminatory feelings. I was chastised by both ends of the spectrum: the African Americans were not agreeable with me, and the anglo Americans weren't either. There was a kind of two-way racism in there."

For both men, and for many black Hispanics in America, a mixed heritage often becomes a statement with an unexpected offshoot: blackness weighs more.

"Whether Hispanics choose to identify their race as white, Hispanic or black is not a matter of purely personal preference -- it reflects the social position of group members" John Logan concluded in a 2003 study by the Lewis Mumford Center at Albany University. "This is most evident in the case of the smallest group, black Hispanics, whose individual characteristics such as income and unemployment make them in many ways more similar to non-Hispanic blacks than to other Hispanic groups," concluded the study.

As blacks, black Hispanics tend to suffer higher poverty rates than other Hispanic subgroups. Put in perspective, their struggle resembles closely that of blacks.

It also illustrates how difficult it is to escape from racial predeterminations, even for those individuals for whom the race factor was never part of their identity.

But both Bello and Flecha shrug off the racial classifications and all its implications with one big smile. "Hispanics are not a race but members of a group with a common cultural background. To put all of us in the same bag is just ridiculous."

Rita Cuevas, a nun at Lady Guadalupe Catholic Church in Midland, and another Hispanic stereotype shredder, agrees with them.

As most Philippines, Sister Rita looks Asian but has a heavy Hispanic heritage, an inescapable byproduct of 350 years of Spaniards' colonialism.

"Spaniards left us many things that are now part of our identity: we are Catholics, we cook our seafood Mediterranean-style, our language is full of Spanish words and we are very 'family people,'" she said. But Philippines also owe vast areas of their identity pool to the Chinese influence, which puts them in the same place as black Hispanics: somewhere in the middle of two heritages.

Or perhaps beyond them. . 

Afro-Mexican Racial and Ethnic Self-Identity: Three 
Generations of the Thornton Family in Nogales, Arizona

A thesis submitted in partial satisfaction of the requirements for the degree 
Master of Arts in Afro-American Studies
by Alva Moore Stevenson, 2004


Alva Moore Stevenson was born in Los Angeles, California on October 28, 1954. She lived in a mostly-African American neighborhood until age seventeen, when the family moved to Culver City. At age fourteen Alva began to attend schools which were largely-White. She graduated from UCLA with a Bachelors degree in English. For the last twenty-two years she has worked as an administrator in an academic oral history program.

My mother influenced my pride in being Black "in her gentle way." She bolstered my self-esteem in the face of much sustained external criticism. There was "strong pressure" from my father to be Black and to be so in a certain fashion from my earliest recollections as a child. I was eight years old when my sister was born and came home from the hospital during Christmas week in 1962. I saw Rosenda for the first time and matter-of factly stated, "Oh—a Mexican baby!" With her olive skin and jet black hair—that’s exactly what she looked like. I don’t recall exactly what my father said but he was quick to correct me and say that she was Black. As we grew older, his version of being Black didn’t include, among other things, having White friends or listening to "White" music. What I would say is that his proselytizing to us on being Black was relatively louder than my mother Lydia—but definitely didn’t drown her out. Like her mother Tráncito she inculcated the Mexican culture by cooking the food; relating folktales and songs. Another strong influence were the yearly summer visits to visit my grandmother Tráncito in Nogales. For a sustained period of time each year what my mother transmitted to us was duly reinforced. The visits also afforded us the opportunity to interact with our grandmother’s relatives such as her sister—our Tía Ramona. It was also distinguished by the fact that, for the most part, only Spanish was spoken.

For the complete text of the thesis go to:
Second from the last on the Table of Contents.

To Contact: UCLA University Library
Oral History Program A253 Bunche Hall, Box 951575
Los Angeles, CA 90095-1575


Oakland church bans Lakota funeral
Teresa Zelda Haro on identity issues
Lipan Apache
Bridging Worlds 
Fitting In (Yellow Bird) 
Indigenous tidbits URL 


Oakland church bans Lakota funeral
Pastor says Indian drum ceremony inappropriate for Christian institution
By Laura Ernde, Staff writer, Oakland Tribune Feb 9th February 14, 2005
Sent by Dorinda Lupe Moreno

OAKLAND - It may be called the American Indian Baptist Church, but this Oakland house of worship has made it clear that a traditional Lakota funeral ceremony is not welcome there.

Deacon Paul Brown said it would be inappropriate to have a Lakota drum ceremony inside a Christian church. And the deacon is not willing to hand over the pulpit to a medicine man without a pre-service interview. "It's like having two religions trying to meet at the same place," said Brown, 73, who is a Chickasaw Indian. "In the Bible, you can't serve two masters."

As a result of the conflict, the family of American Indian activist Muriel Waukazoo said they'll hold her funeral elsewhere. "We'd like to do it in a traditional way. That's what my mother believed. That's what she fought for all her life," Martin Waukazoo said.Embracing tradition

The church, at 1315 102nd Ave., was founded in the 1950s by Southern Baptists who wanted to provide a place of worship to American Indians who held Christian beliefs but were not accepted at white churches, Brown said.

Brown said the incident made him realize the church needs to have a written policy on use of the church to prevent future misunderstandings. The church is affiliated with the California Southern Baptist Convention but has the right to make its own decisions about the use of its facilities, said Terry Barone, leader of the convention's communications group.

Several members of the small congregation joined the Waukazoos at the church Monday night in an attempt to change church officials' minds. Cindi Adams of Oakland, a member of the church since the mid-1980s, said American Indians who embrace Christianity shouldn't have to give up their traditional beliefs.

"I embrace my culture. I respect my culture, and I have a great love for my culture. And for someone to tell me there's something wrong with that, it was heart-wrenching for me," she said.

Martin Waukazoo said he sees the conflict as a continuation of the civil rights battles his mother waged in the name of preserving American Indian cultural traditions. In 1970, she climbed Mount Rushmore with other women elders to assert the Lakota claim to the Black Hills. A year later, the United Natives of America voted her Indian Woman of the Year.

Born in Rosebud, S.D., her Lakota name was A Strong Hearted Woman. But she was known to many as simply "Grandma."  She died Sunday at the age of 88. A wake will be held at 7 p.m. Thursday at the Church of the Assumption, a Catholic parish in San Leandro. The church will host
funeral services at 10:30 a.m. Friday.

Regina LeRoy
Facilities Coordinator, School of Education
1501 Tolman Hall #1670
Of: (510) 643-6257  Fax: (510) 643-8904

Comments by Teresa Zelda Haro on identity issues:

I always felt that there were others like me and mi familia who have similar stories that connect us to our Yaqui relatives and ancestors but because of the bureaucratic  colonizer's model of who gets to be an "Indian" that has prevented this dialogue from taking place. As well as disallowing the historical knowledge to be passed on. I believe there are many Yaqui descendents that may be unaware of their heritage, and having this tribal enrollment criteria where we have to prove that we are Yaqui prevents many from learning their history. 

All I am trying to do within my Master's thesis is to give  voice to Yaqui/Chicanos, 
but especially to those in Arizona. Not because I don't think that California Yaqui/Chicanos for example, are not important. It is because I am locating my own cultural/social experience within my this work and I am a Tucson Yaqui/Chicana, which I feel makes me somewhat of an insider. Not that I am arrogant to say I am an expert, all I am attempting to do is generate interest in this particular group's history.
Hi Michael,  Yes, the "O" is for Oregon. I live in Eugene, one of the whitest cities in the US. I have not written the thesis as of yet...It has been a trying and challenging ordeal. Here I am, a 44 year-old Yaqui/Chicana de Tucson and am coming up against many obstacles of the western methods. They discount personal narrative and do not believe I should privilege myself as a source, even if I am attempting to explain that I am a product of the situation in question. They do not see that the voices of the people are valid and legitimate in explaining and defining their actual lived experiences. To the gate keepers my feelings that some Chicanos from the Tucson barrios are Yaqui is speculation. The Chicanos who I conversed with believe their ancestors to be the Aztecs. I'm looking to explain the reason or reasons why some who may be Yaqui or Apache, or Tarahumara for that matter claims an Aztecan heritage, rather than their actual one. I am hoping to have my thesis written by this coming summer and defend this Fall (2005).

I am at home right now, but when I go to my office tomorrow I will send you the fax number of our department. I am really interested in reading this article, for it mentions things like "emerging ideas of culture," and insider/outsider perspective as well as participant observation. This appears to be my methodology as well, but I need sources to legitimize it. Any help you can offer will be truly appreciated, even your own personal narrative can be useful to me.
Gracias por tu attencion,

Zelda Lopez Haro
Undergraduate Advisor, Ethnic Studies Program
Indigenous Cultural Survival
Graduate Studies, University of Oregon
346-0906  346-0906 

Lipan Apache
Sent by George Gause

Apaches are distant cousins of the Navajos, both being of the Athapaskan language stock from Canada.  There are seven Apache bands remaining today, one being the Lipan, who were the easternmost of the Apache bands. 

The Lipan were buffalo hunters residing on the Southern Plains around the Texas Panhandle until about 1720, when they were pushed south by Comanches.  They became a real thorn in the side of the Spanish in central Texas and northern Coahuila/Nuevo Leon throughout the eighteenth century.  There are numerous Lipan descendants in South Texas today, as well as on the Mescalero Reservation in New Mexico.  I even found a website for Lipan in Louisiana!  I need to look into that someday.     SOURCE: Dr. Bill Carter, Professor of History / South Texas College / McAllen

Bridging Worlds of Misunderstanding
When do Indians cease being Indians--when do they lose their memory/language?
Sent by Dorinda Lupe Moreno

Our Uncle Joe remembers how Mama Mencha dried tobacco along a river, raising her 
hands to pray to grandfather sun.  Mama Mencha, our great-great grandmother, was Kikapu Indian. U.S. history books say the Kikapua (as they are known in their own language) were first sighted by the "white man" in the Great Lakes region.

Mama Mencha crossed south at "the pass of the eagle" (now Eagle Pass), giving us roots in 
two countries. She settled in Nacimiento, Mexico, when our people were pushed into Mexico from the United States while fleeing Indian wars. Our uncle, or "Tio Chema," as we call him, remembers her stories about seeing Santa Anna ride by on his horse.

The Kikapu (as they are known in Mexico) were given land by the Mexican government and 
unrestricted passage between the two countries.
Mama Mencha died at age 115 in 1937. She's buried without a marker in a private family cemetery in Waco, Texas.

Tio Chema, who looks like the Indian head on an old nickel and likes to go to the powwows in Oklahoma, is a keeper of family stories. We are also Comanche from one of our mother's side of the family, but those stories have been lost. A people without stories is a people without memory or history. Sometimes all that remains of a people's history are names on birth certificates, sepia photographs and stone inscriptions that are later misinterpreted by archeologists.

Often we have wondered, when do Indians cease being Indians--when do they lose their memory, their tongue?  In the '40s, as the animals they had hunted for sustenance were killed off in Mexico, the Kikapua (which loosely translates as "the people who keep moving") were forced to follow 
the migrant stream into the United States. They camped under a bridge in Eagle Pass, Texas, and became known as "the bridge people."

Our relatives, however, disliked the nickname. "We are not bridge people. We are not cardboard people," they'd say, referring to the cardboard homes that some migrants lived in.

But the moniker has new meaning for us nowadays, as we find ourselves bridging nations at indigenous summits. At conferences, we are often asked to translate for Spanish-speaking southern indigenous nations and English-speaking North American Indians.

As writers, we are also translators of cultures, within the Latino communities, between native people and mestizos, and between Latino communities and our mainstream readers. At other times, we bring to our readers knowledge from ethnic scholars that might otherwise remain locked in ivory towers. We often say we are "bridge people" who help to bridge wide cultural gulfs of misunderstanding.

We remember being on a bus in Mexico City when a fair-haired mother screamed at her child, who was slow to board, "Don't be an Indian."  We recall how an instructor friend of ours participating in the mother-daughter program in El Paso, Texas, told the girls they were all beautiful. When one girl asked,"Even if you look like an Indian, Miss?" the instructor replied, "Especially if you look like an

It reminds us of our own childhoods, of thinking we were ugly because we were dark and Indian, washing our skin furiously, hoping we would wash our color away. A friend of ours remembers going to bed at night and praying she would wake up blond. Another friend says that's why some Latinas dress with garish clothes, makeup and baubles--to cover up the Indian.

We see Chicanos and Latinos as people from four directions because most of us are a mixture of Indian, European, African and Asian. This mixture, however historically has generally been viewed by both Spaniards and indigenous people as contaminated blood.

During the debate over the Columbus Quincentennial in 1992, left out of the discussion were the vast heirs--or rather--the product of the conquest of the Americas, the mestizos. We concluded then that the Americas will heal its racial wounds when mestizos not only stopped hating Indians, but stopped hating themselves. Part of the healing requires that we all start to view mestizos as one group, with multiple identities, cultures and histories, albeit begotten of war and conquest.

Perhaps a better term for mestizos is bridge people who, because of their unique experience of coming to terms with the conflict that created their culture, can be bridges over the walls of prejudice.

On the tree of humanity, there are many leaves and flowers, but to paraphrase Cuban patriot Jose Marti, our trunk will always be indigenous.

Fitting In (Yellow Bird) 

Sent by Dorinda Lupe Moreno
Source: andre cramblit

In my junior and senior years of high school, I went to the Immaculate Conception Catholic Indian boarding school in Stephan, S.D. It wasn't an altogether unpleasant experience.

But it sounds as if attending such a school was unpleasant for some of the elders at Spirit Lake. I say this because I interviewed several of them for a news story - a story about Cankdeska Cikana Community College, which is on the Spirit Lake reservation. (Cankdeska Cikana, pronounced chin-desk-ka cheek-a-naw, means Little Hoop).

As I listened to their stories, I thought about my father, Grover. He was sent to a mission school where he had to dress and act like he was in the military. Many of the boarding schools were near or on the military garrisons and had that same theme.

My father intensely disliked his years at Chemewa Indian Mission School in Salem, Ore. They made the students wear uniforms that cut into their necks and carry wooden guns, he told us. He was sent to that school because when the federal agents would come around to pick up the kids for schools near the reservation, he would run away. When they did round him up and take him to school, he sometimes would be back home before the agent came looking for the next group. So they sent him far away.

He didn't have a first name, so at Chemawa Indian school, the mission agents gave him the name Grover - a name he always hated. We suspected it was after President Grover Cleveland, but my father didn't care about this white president and thought his name sounded like a dog - Rover.

It was federal policy that in order to assimilate them, children should be separated from their parents. They had to leave their culture and language behind. When these students returned, my father claimed, they were dark-skinned white people.

In the late 1980s, the Minnesota Historical Society put together a book and traveling show called "The Way to Independence." It was about a Hidatsa family named Good Bird who lived in the Hidatsa community on the Fort Berthold reservation called Independence. Part of that community 
currently is covered by Lake Sakakawea.

The project also featured an Arikara woman named Anna Dawson. Like my father, she was one of those who was picked up one day and sent to the East for school. Her mother went with her and stayed with her daughter until she died. Dawson was there from the time she was a preschooler 
until she graduated after two years of college. Then she was sent home to the Fort Berthold reservation to be a teacher.

I remember when, as a teenager, I first saw Anna: She was very old. Her skin was faded and her hair was pure white. But most astonishing was the way she talked. She was a Plains Indian with a Boston accent.

The traveling show featured a life-sized cardboard cut-out of Anna. She looked like a typical teacher of that time, in her long dress with a sculpted waist and rolled-up hair.

There also was a picture of Anna and her mother sitting together. It was a picture of then and now: The mother was dark skinned with traditional dress. Anna already was dressed in contemporary dress.

My father's story is different. He never conformed to the school's mission. He stubbornly clung to his language and the old ways - always talking in Arikara when he could, but never teaching his children. He said we had to live in a white man's world and needed to speak English.

My sister and I talked about him Thursday on our way back from Spirit Lake. We realized that he was a man out of sync with life in Minot, N.D. He was born in the early 1900s. He was the youngest of eight children, so his father, our grandfather, was born in the mid-1800s. He'd had 
conversations with people who'd been born in a world so different from ours that probably we wouldn't recognize it. That is what my father inherited, and we were too young to get him to talk about it.

In my two years at boarding school, I learned just two things: Make your bed the minute you get up, and don't miss mass on Sundays. But only the part about making my bed stayed with me.

The men and women who lived in those times of assimilation should be 
remembered as heroes who survived in spite of it all.

Indigenous tidbits URL


Remnants of Crypto-Jews Among Hispanic Americansby Gloria Golden
      Maria Apodaca       

New Book: Bring Me More Stories
La Familia
Cuando pierden los Sefarditas Israel
Juderías en España

Enduring Flame
Some Comments on Topic
     George Gause
     Miguel Bedolla

Jerry Benavides
      Elena Stoupignan 
      Manuel Quinones
      Frank Longoria
Recommended Resources 


Maria Apodaca:
Speech given Upon Return to Judaism

My name is Meirah bat Shlomo Elisheva 
(I am the daughter of Solomon and Ella) which comes from a translation of my middle name Clarita, given to me in honor of my grandmother Clare means "to cast light upon" or "to light up." Today, I feel that light burning in my heart for I have found a home Judaism.

For years, I have had a burning need to discover the history of my ancestry. In pursuing this, I learned that I am descendant of the Sephardic Jews of Spain that survived the Spanish Inquisition. They came to the New World for freedon, but continued to keep the true identity of their religion a secret. As a teenager in high school, we were studying the five great religions of the world. I chose to write about Judaism. After my father reviewed my work, he slowly put the paper down and told me something that I would have never guessed on I my own. He told me this in a very secretive way. The three little words that my father used changed my life forever: "We were Jews."

For years, I have been searching for information about this history. It has been a difficult task, but I have had some important success. This past year, I learned that my great-grandmother, Petritia Chavez-Luna, was a practicing Jew. She, her brother, and sister-in-law would get together on Saturdays and were not to be disturbed. Great-Uncle Clemente even had a menorah in his home. I had no idea that my roots to Judaism were so close. I thank my family and friends for their support. (Cuedo decar que tengo mucho olguio a desar que soy Heja de Israel.) I can say that I am very proud to be a daughter of Israel. I am happy that I come from a very strong and brave people.


NEW!!  Bring Me More Stories. By Sally Benforado. Floricanto Press ISBN: 0915745674
  Floricanto Press New Book Titles

In these short tales, author Benforado weaves together the oral history of a family of Sephardic Jews, from their close knit home in Turkey to their new lives in America. They are stories of a heritage that spans the globe, of centuries-old traditions transported to a different world, and of people who held tightly to the ways of their ancestors, who, like them, left their homes to settle in a strange new land. Following their exodus from Spain in 1492, Sephardic Jews were not allowed to remain on Spanish territories. Any Sephardim who chose not to leave, had to convert to Catholicism. Many chose to emigrate and leave Spain, their ancestral land forever.The hardships faced upon leaving Spain were horrific for the Spanish Jews. Paris vividly describes the following: Although some Jews "traveled by donkey," the Jews of Spain, for the most part, literally walked out of their country. These refugees were the "scholars, the sons and daughters of families who had served their monarchs. . . shoemakers, tanners, butchers, the old, the pregnant, [and] the young." Extraordinary weather conditions, in the heat of summer, and the harshness of the land caused many to endure severe suffering. The Sephardim who had so much pride in their achievements could not believe their banishment. Traveling conditions were quite dangerous, especially in unsafe ships. Yet, many chose exile, and as Paris explains, " Those who chose exile were, for the most part, the salt-of-the-earth of Spanish Jewry: the artisans, the tradesmen, and the women—the historical carriers of religious tradition." An extraordinary civilization was lost in Iberia, probably to never again regain its glory.

Bring Me More Stories stands as a living testament to a people born of their Hispanic ancestry, Jewish tradition and immigrant experience.

Edición 9 de febrero de 2005 de Odiel Información de Huelva


De los muchos que marcharon a tierras americanas y no volvieron fueron la familia Galeote. El primero fue Gonzalo Galeote, que era natural y vecino de Huelva y estaba casado con Isabel Díaz. Fue de marinero en el segundo viaje de Cristóbal Colon a bordo de la carabela "La Cordera" y su nombre figura entre los que tuvo que jurar que la isla de Cuba era tierra firme. Se quedó en la isla La Española y desde allí reclamó a sus hijos Alonso y Antón, que aún vivían en Huelva,  para que se reuniesen con él.

Una vez juntos, los tres participaron en la conquista de Cuba, también participaron con Ponce de León en Puerto Rico y Jamaica, donde recibieron tierras y encomiendas. Marcharon de nuevo los tres con la expedición de Narváez a Nueva España y en la de Juan de Grijalva, el sobrino del gobernador de Cuba en la que iba como piloto mayor el palermo Antón de Alaminos, para explorar las costas de Cozumel, Campeche y Puerto Deseado. Al regreso de la expedición de Grijalva, su tío el gobernador, le reprochó que no hubiese fundado una población en aquellas tierras y esta fue la causa que nombrara a Hernán Cortés como jefe de la expedición que preparó a continuación  para seguir la exploración y poblamiento de las tierras descubiertas por Grijalva. En la nueva expedición de Hernán Cortés, también iban Gonzalo de Galeote y sus hijos Alonso y Antón.

El padre, Gonzalo de Galeote, murió en 1522 luchando contra los indios, pero consta que su hijo Alonso se encontraba en tierras mexicanas doce años después de la conquista y que como su hermano Antonio se estableció en Puebla.

Hemos encontrado que un hijo de Alonso, llamado Alonso Galeote García se casó con una española y vivían en Puebla teniendo una familia numerosa, ya que tenían seis hijos varones y cinco hembras, además de una hija natural que formaba parte también del entorno familiar.

En nuestra investigación, encontramos un expediente de limpieza de sangre, de 9 de diciembre de 1597, ante el Tribunal de la Inquisición de México a nombre de Diego de Galeote y Tovar, que es un descendiente del primer Galeote que llegó a tierras americanas en el segundo viaje de Cristóbal Colón.                                                                

                                                Angel  Custodio Rebollo.

Cuando pierden los Sefarditas Israel.

[[ Received the following communication from a reader in MONTERREY,N. L., Mexico, 
Edna Yolanda Elizondo Gonzalez, ]]











[[Second communication]]

                                                     EDNA YOLANDA ELIZONDO GONZALEZ.

Prima Mimi,  He recibido tu información sobre la
Juderías en España.  Por si crees de interés transmitírselo a “Edna Yolanda Elizondo”, te informo un poco quienes son los sefarditas.

Al invadir las Legiones romanas la nación judía, muchos de los judios fueron enviados al exilio en tierras romanas. Uno de los destinos era a “SEPHARD” que en hebreo significa “muy lejos” y por ello los judíos que fueron enviados a la Península Ibérica (España y Portugal) eran conocidos por SEFARDIES, ó SEPHARDIM. 

Los judíos españoles fueron expulsados en 1492 y los de Portugal, años mas tarde.  Se conservan en la Península Ibérica muchos apellidos de origen  judío.  En la Real Chancillería de Valladolid, existen expedientes de hidalguía del apellido ELIZONDO. Como siempre, estoy a tu disposición.

Tu primo Ángel Custodio,

Enduring Flame 
Echoes of Valley's Jewish heritage filling the ears of a new generation 

By TRAVIS M. WHITEHEAD Monitor Staff Writer 
The McAllen Monitor, Sunday, January 30, 2005, 1A+
Sent by JM Pena

Stone offerings in cemeteries and candles on Friday nights have been a tradition for some local families for generations. Some of those traditions bear a lingering memory of the Sefardim - Jews who fled the Spanish Inquisition of the 15 th and 16 th centuries. any settled in northern Mexico, practicing their religion in secret and changing their names to hide their heritage. Some even converted to Catholicism. 

"Eventually, the Inquisition got all the way up here," said Noel Benavides, a local historian. "Some of them didn't relinquish their religion; some were executed if they didn't accept the Catholic religion." 
Still, the Jewish customs and culture lived on, as did the bloodline, to become a part of the lifestyle here, he said. 

Stuart Klein, owner of S. Klein Galleries in McAllen, said Jewish settlers were not an isolated bunch of peddlers. Klein, a member of Temple Emanuel, the only synagogue in McAllen, has done extensive research into the history of Jews in Mexico. The Jewish migration was much larger than many people realize, he said, and began when Christopher Columbus set sail in 1492, landing in the Americas three months later. At least one of Columbus' crewmembers was Jewish, he said. And when Hernan Cortes conquered the Aztecs, five of his officers were Jewish. 

"These people had to get out of Europe," said Klein, 72. "A lot of people went with the Spanish expeditions. Some were merchants, some were with the government, some in the military. A lot of these guys were very well-educated." 

George Gause, a special collections librarian at the University of Texas-Pan American in Edinburg, said Jewish settlers played a significant yet subtle role in the development of the Rio Grande Valley's culture. The flour tortilla, he said, might have originated from the Jews because of their use of unleavened bread. They also brought with them the practice of draining the blood from slaughtered animals. 

But Rabbi Steven Rosenberg of Temple Emanuel has a different take on the culinary history of the flour tortilla. Many of the Jews who settled in Mexico married into the local population, and the Jewish heritage has become entwined in Hispanic culture, he said, but the flour tortilla and the Jewish matzoh - unleavened bread - are completely different foods. 

"We need to be careful about how we draw comparisons," he said. "The unleavened bread has been part of Middle Eastern culture for 6,000 years." 

A presentation in September at the Mission Historical Museum shed some light on the history of the Jewish population that settled in Cerralvo, Monterrey and other Mexican communities, said Sam Ramos, chairman of the Starr County Historical Commission. 

Miguel Bedolla and his sister-in-law, Elena Stoupignan of Austin, gave the presentation. Bedolla, an economics and management professor at the University of Texas at San Antonio, also holds a master's degree in history. He uses genealogy to provide a better perspective on historic periods, he said, and he has published articles on historical topics. Stoupignan has a degree in education, and she also gives cultural presentations and assists Bedolla with much of his research. Bedolla also makes presentations each year at the Pontifical University Regina Apostolorum in Rome. 
Ramos said the Sefardim went to northern Mexico because it was isolated and they could live in relative peace, but they were not isolated from religious hatred, he said. 

"In 1579, Luis Carvajal de la Cueva - he was a Portuguese Jew - he settled in Nuevo Leon, about 200 leagues (600 miles) from Tampico to the Pacific Coast," Ramos said while reviewing his notes from the presentation. Carvajal had settled about 200 leagues of land between Tampico on the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific coast of Mexico. A league is equivalent to 3 geographical miles. 

Some points of the Carvajal story have become the subject of much debate. Klein attended part of the presentation by Bedolla and Stoupignan and said he found it interesting. However, he said that Luis Carvajal was one of Cortes' officers and was awarded land from Tampico to what is now Eagle Pass and up to the Nueces River near Corpus Christi. 

Klein said Carvajal established the capital of Nuevo Leon at Cerallvo, about 50 miles south of Roma. However, Bedolla said Carvajal founded the town of La Villa de San Luis on the site of present-day Monterrey. Klein could neither confirm nor deny this. Bedolla also said the entire family was taken to Mexico City by the Inquisition, which imprisoned the entire family on the charge of publicly practicing Catholicism while secretly practicing Judaism. 

The arrests stemmed from an incident in Spain the year before, Bedolla said. It seems Carvajal's entire family had converted to Catholicism while still in Spain. However, Bedolla pointed out that, although this was during the time of the Inquisition, the Carvajals were not forced to become Catholic. 

"The Inquisition only had authority over Catholics," Bedolla said. "The Inquisition could not force anyone to become Catholic. But once you were Catholic, you had to stay Catholic." 
Klein said regardless of what the Inquisition had the power to do, it was administered by people who "went after anybody." 

"They went after Jews and Indians," he said. "They thought they could out there. In every government, when they are out on their own, how do you know what they did? " 
Luis Carvajal, he said, had converted to Catholicism in Spain of his own accord. 

"He was really Catholic in good faith," Bedolla said. "One evening, they were sitting down to dinner and he said the blessing. 'In the name of the Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost.' One of his nieces said, 'Do not say that prayer, because the Messiah hasn't come.' He did not correct her for saying that." 

Luis Carvajal did not correct the niece, and that was the reason why many years later, the family was taken from La Villa de San Luis to Mexico City and imprisoned by the Inquisition. There they were to be tried by the Tribunal de la Santa Inquisición, or Tribunal of the Holy Inquisition. 
Klein said it's hard to know for sure what was said or what really happened at the dinner table that night so long ago, but most Jews who converted to Catholicism were forced to do so under threat of their lives. 

Bedolla said every member of Carvajal's family was tried independently by the Inquisition. Luis Carvajal died in prison, apparently of natural causes, before the Inquisition made a final decision in his case. Bedolla does not know what became of the rest of his family, except for a nephew, who was also named Luis Carvajal. 

As soon as the younger Luis Carvajal found out the family was really Jewish, he circumcised himself and began practicing the faith. He was executed by the Inquisition for being Catholic and practicing Judaism. 

"He was the only one (of the Carvajal family) burnt at the stake," Bedolla said. 
After the Carvajals were forced to leave La Villa de San Luis and were taken to Mexico City to be tried, the town of La Villa de San Luis was abandoned, Bedolla said. 
Only a few short years later, in 1596, the city of Monterrey, in the state of Nuevo Leon, was established on the same spot. 


The Jewish settlers who spread into Coahuila established new settlements, one of which was Santa Rosa, Ramos said. Some of the founders of this new settlement, now called Muzquiz, were descendants of a 13 th-century rabbi named Salomon Halavi of Burgos, Spain, Bedolla said. 
Halavi, Bedolla said, had been a faithful student of the teachings of a 12 th-century Jewish philosopher and physician named Maimonides. However, he converted to Catholicism after reading the writings of St. Thomas Aquinas, a 13 th-century philosopher and doctor of the church, Bedolla said. 

After Halavi's conversion, he changed his name to Pablo de Santa Maria. Bedolla said that after his descendants settled in northern Mexico, they changed their surname to Rodriguez de Maluenda. Many of his descendants eventually spread into the Rio Grande Valley and bear the names Saenz, Falcon, Gonzalez, Galan and Castro. Bedolla said he is a descendant of Salomon Halavi. 
Rosenberg said he had heard of Halavi, but he has never heard about a conversion, or of Halavi's descendants founding Santa Rosa. 

"There's no way you could even verify that," Rosenberg said. "That is probably more of a story than anything else." 

When Spanish explorer Jose de Escandon established Reynosa, Camargo and other settlements along the Rio Grande in the late 1700s, the Spanish official who inventoried the area and its settlers found they had plenty of horses, cattle and goats, but no pigs, Noel Benavides said. The Jewish faith forbids the consumption of pork. 

Stoupignan, of Austin, was born and raised in Monterrey, and claims descent from the Jewish settlers of northern Mexico. She grew up with many of the customs without knowing where they came from, she said. 

"Every Friday night, we got together for dinner and lit candles," she recalls. "We usually closed the curtains because we didn't want anybody to see what we were eating." 

Stoupignan believes the original motive for the secrecy, going back several generations, would have been to keep people from discovering they were Jewish, but long after the family forgot the initial reason, the practice continued. She also grew up believing that pork was bad for her, not knowing that abstinence from pork had come from her Jewish ancestry. 

She and Bedolla agree that the custom of lighting candles on Friday nights came from their Jewish ancestors. 

"A lot of people, when they heard that (at the presentation), we all shook our heads," Ramos said. "A lot of our ancestors did that. Some of the foods, when you kill a chicken by cutting off the head, you bleed it out. That's very Jewish." 

Rosenberg said that in the Jewish faith, animals must be killed as humanely as possible. The blood must be drained from the animal because Judaism forbids the consumption of blood. He said the consumption of pork is forbidden because an animal used for food must have a cloven hoof and chew its cud. Chickens can be considered kosher. 

Jews in Spain and Mexico who converted to Catholicism became known as Conversos, Rosenberg said. They often continued to practice their Jewish faith in secret, always fearful of being discovered. Through the generations, Anusim - descendants of Conversos - maintained some of their Jewish identity. 

One of their customs was the lighting of the shabbat, or Sabbath candles, each Friday at sunset. While the origin of this custom became lost to memory in the Hispanic community, certain material possessions were a closely guarded secret, Rosenberg said. A number of Hispanics have come to him trying to identify garments the family had kept for generations. Some of them have turned out to be tallits (prayer shawls) and kippahs (head coverings). Some families even had old Hebrew Bibles. 
"They were told never to talk to anybody about this," he said. 

Benavides, too, believes he may have some Jewish ancestry. "The story goes that when my grandparents celebrated their 50th wedding anniversary here in Roma, my aunts came up with two beautiful candelabra at the end of the table," he said. "I asked where it came from, and they said it had been in the family for many years. The candelabra had seven candles and little Stars of David on the base." 

Neither his aunts nor his grandparents knew anything about any Jewish heritage in the family, Benavides said, but few of the old families in Starr County are certain of any possible Jewish background. 

There are only the faint whisperings, speculation, stories and the enduring culture. "The customs stayed here," Benavides said. "That's why we have some original dishes such as cabrito (baby goat), flour tortillas, albóndigas, which are like meatballs. My grandmother used to make them. They would drop the meatball into the soup, and it was very, very tasty. Now we make albóndigas out of anything, tuna, salmon." 

Rosenberg was not familiar with albóndigas, but he did say there's a Jewish dish from Eastern Europe in which matzoh balls are boiled and placed into chicken soup. Rosenberg said he could not confirm or deny whether cabrito had its origins in Jewish culture. 

"I think they might be likening that to ancient Hebrews who were shepherds," he said. "Many of these stories are apocryphal. Legends have some basis in fact … 

"A lot of people who find out about their Jewish heritage try to grasp anything they can to give them some kind of connection," he said. "A lot of them haven't had the benefit of being in a larger Jewish community." 

Some genetic testing has been done in Mexico and South America, and results show many Mexican people - and those of Mexican background - have some Jewish ancestry. Rosenberg said many members of the first synagogue in what later became the United States were Sephardic Jews. 
Bedolla said one Valley resident pointed out that, while some area Hispanics may indeed have Jewish heritage, that does not necessarily make them Jews. Rather, the Jewish heritage has become part of the Mestizo culture. While a large number of Jews settled in Guerrero Viejo, Tamps., many of them married into the local Indian population and other cultural groups. 

But the Jewish influence does linger, even beyond the grave. While strolling through the Roma cemetery recently, Benavides picked up several stones placed on grave markers. 

"I see so many stones in this place," he said. "When it comes to All Saints Day, they have families and loved ones here. People who haven't been here in years come back to Roma. They say a prayer and lay a stone. The only other place I have seen that is Jewish cemeteries." Rosenberg confirmed this as a very strong Jewish influence. 

"The Jews don't believe in flowers at gravesites because they wither and die," Rosenberg said. "A rock is a lasting sign. The tradition of putting rocks on gravesites goes back to biblical times. When someone died, the body was buried in a cave and covered with rocks. It grew into a symbol of putting a rock on top of the grave, as a sign of respect." 

Even today, when a Jewish person dies, people are asked to donate money to charity instead of sending flowers, he said. It helps more people that way. 

Rosenberg said he has seen a surprisingly large number of Hispanics rediscovering their Jewish heritage; many have left Christianity to convert to Judaism.
"More and more people who have Jewish roots are beginning to find them," he said. "I find it fascinating that a part of the Jewish culture and religion that was lost at one time is starting to be reclaimed." 

Raul Montemayor is one of those who has returned to his Jewish roots. Montemayor, 55, has lived in McAllen for about 20 years. A native of Monterrey, he said he is descended from some of the original Jewish settlers of Nuevo Leon. 

"It's a painful history," he said. "My family was not religious. I never thought like a Christian. I was just in limbo."  While the Anusim maintained some characteristics of their Jewish heritage, there's another name for those who come full circle. 

"The ones that return to full Jewish practice are called Baal Teshuva," he said. "One who returns." 
---To learn more about the Jewish faith and culture, visit the following Web sites:  and

---Travis M. Whitehead covers Starr County, Mission, law enforcement and general assignments for The Monitor. You can reach him at (956) 683-4452. 


George Gause, historian, archivist, librarian at the the University of Texas, Pan American stimulated considerable discussion by circulating emails on the topic, some of which are below:  
George writes:
NOTE:  All of this discussion is WONDERFUL.  

In reply to Bob Wright / San Antonio: About the chickens, pigs, and that, Wright is right. But it is still interesting that if they had any they were not counted. They counted goats, which may weigh less than a pig. The identity of the place where the church was located in Revilla is in the Tienda de Cuervo Report.  Miguel Bedolla  2-10-05

By the way...the Ibanez book in Longoria's bib seems to back up something that I had mentioned yesterday. That the Inquisition was preoccupied more with stuff other than the persecution of Crypto Jews. If you do a quick calculation you will find that only about 6% of the cases dealt with by the Inquisition had to do with Jews. Lutheranism, clerical abuses, and stuff like that were much more of a threat that relapsing Crypto Jews, something that many of the inquisitors may have understood since so many of them were Conversos!!   Miguel Bedolla  2-10-05

Hi Primos: Thanks for the interesting exchanges, which I always find educational and enjoyable. Aren't we sometimes trying to rewrite history? Which of de la Garza's founded Revilla? What happen to our Revilla Founding Ancestors--Guerra, Martinez, Benavides, Trevino, etc.? Just curious!!! Also, weren't Ancestors del Canto, de Montemayor and others in Cerralvo prior to Carbajal and de la Garza making it to Cerralvo? Again, just curious!! Enjoy. Jerry Benavides  2/11/2005 

Much like Mr. Benavides, I'd like to focus on our beloved ancestors. Anybody want to name names of ancestors who have been identified as "crypto Jews?" How about Alonso de Leon, El General? Anyone know anything about him? He was supposenly identified by his nephew when the nephew applied for the priesthood. Someone said that info was in one of Mr. Ruldolfo Gonzales' book. Alonso de Leon is a common ancestor to many of us. 
Thanks, Manuel Quinones


Comments from Elena Stoupignan  2/14/2005 

Ramo de la Inquisición in Archivo General de la Nación is shaped by 1557 volumes in which we find a great number of crypto-Jews procesos.   

There we find the proceso to iliterate Francisco Millán in 1538. He was judged with all severity of the law in spite that the Inquisition was not established in New Spain until 1571. This case is of great significance because we can see Don Fray Juan de Zumárraga (Obispo Inquisidor Apostólico)
excercising his ample role as an inquisitor. 

Source: Gojman Alicia- Los Conversos en la Nueva España. Universidad Autónoma de México.

Dr. Alicia Gojman de Backal director of Centro de Documentación Judaica in Mexico City. Scholars at the Center have been doing Paleography to more than 100 procesos of Ramo Inquisición in Archivo General de la Nación.  

Comments from Miguel Bedolla: 
Because of the persecutions, Spanish Jews began to migrate to the new world after the Conquest.  I am not sure there were any active persecutions at the time that the "New World" was opened and conversos began to come to it. Officially, No jews ever came, they were Catholics who had recently
converted to Catholicism.   Comments From Frank Longoria 2-10-05  

Long before the Inquisition was established on November 4, 1571 in New Spain (México), the Catholic Church conducted Autos-da-Fe.  Hernando Alonso, a ship’s carpenter, who was a soldier under Herman Cortes, was tried for relapsing into Judaism and burned at the stake on October 17, 1528. According to Alfonso Toro, Judaism was practiced openly in New Spain, as attested by testimonies provided by relapsed Jews who were burned at the stake in 1579 and confessed to have practice Judaism for over 40 years. Toro contends that the reason for the Inquisition for not having discovered more relapsed Jews was due to the ignorance of the judges.  Thus, many who
were brought for trial and observed the Law of Moses escaped with light penalties “only because careful investigation was not made about their beliefs” and were charged with blasphemy or other offenses not punishable with death (xxxiii)

Dr. Seymour B. Liebman explains in his book “The Jews In New Spain” that many conversos came to New Spain as a crew members of ships owned by conversos and jumped ship in Veracruz, contributing to the growth of conversos communities.  Once in New Spain, the conversos practiced Judaism privately.  Most of their religious practices consisted of observing the Shabbat and dietary laws.  By the time that the Holy Office with the Spanish Crown’s sanction a more aggressive policy against New Christians and/or crypto-Jews in New Spain, the conversos had become very cunning and the efforts of the Holy Office failed (123). 


Comments From Frank Longoria (10 February 2005)

Long before the Inquisition was established on November 4, 1571 in New Spain (México), the Catholic Church conducted Autos-da-Fe.  Hernando Alonso, a ship’s carpenter, who was a soldier under Herman Cortes, was tried for relapsing into Judaism and burned at the stake on October 17, 1528.  According to Alfonso Toro, Judaism was practiced openly in New Spain, as attested by testimonies provided by relapsed Jews who were burned at the stake in 1579 and confessed to have practice Judaism for over 40 years.  Toro contends that the reason for the Inquisition for not having discovered more relapsed Jews was due to the ignorance of the judges.  Thus, many who were brought for trial and observed the Law of Moses escaped with light penalties "only because careful investigation was not made about their beliefs" and were charged with blasphemy or other offenses not punishable with death (xxxiii)

Dr. Seymour B. Liebman explains in his book "The Jews In New Spain" that many conversos came to New Spain as a crew members of ships owned by conversos and jumped ship in Veracruz, contributing to the growth of conversos communities.  Once in New Spain, the conversos practiced Judaism privately.  Most of their religious practices consisted of observing the Shabbat and dietary laws.  By the time that the Holy Office with the Spanish Crown’s sanction a more aggressive policy against New Christians and/or crypto-Jews in New Spain, the conversos had become very cunning and the efforts of the Holy Office failed (123).

"Crypto Jew" from the Greek, "Hidden" Jew  
comments by Dr. Miguel Bedolla   San Antonio, 9 February 2005

During the time that Cortez was planning his voyage from Spain...First, the name is spelled Cortes, which means "Courteous" and not Cortez. The EZ ending means the "the son of" so Gonzalez is the son of Gonzales, and Rodriguez the son of Rodrigo. But "Cort" is not a Spanish name so there is no possibility of anyone named Cortez, which would mean "the son of Cort."

the Spaniards wanted everyone to be Catholic Christians, including all Jews.  It was not the Spaniards, but the monarchs of Castile and Aragon, Ferdinand and Isabella, who wanted every one to be Catholic in order to create the state that is now called Spain. I doubt that Perico Perez, the Spaniard equivalent to Joe Blow, wanted everybody to be Catholic. Perico probably wanted to be wealthy, to be considered of noble birth, and so on. This is fairly obvious, for instance in the Novelas Ejemplares of Cervantes, of which I find Rinconete and Cortadillo especially enlightening.

Because of the persecutions, Spanish Jews began to migrate to the new world after the Conquest.  I am not sure there were any active persecutions at the time that the "New World" was opened and conversos began to come to it. Officially, No jews ever came, they were Catholics who had recently converted to Catholicism.

Then came the Inquisition, and those that were not Catholics began to be burned on the stake -- alive.  The Inquisition burned alive only a small number of people. Others were burned after they had been executed, but certainly it did  not burn anyone who was not Catholic. This is one historical facts that most people insist in not understanding: the Inquisition did not have any authority at all over non-Catholics. It only had authority over those who had been baptized. Thus the Jews that the Inquisition went after were not those who stayed in their Jewish faith, but only those Jews who, for whatever reason had been baptized, and afterwards had abandoned Catholicism for something else, Lutheranism, Sorcery, or had relapsed into their old Jewish faith. 

the accused Jews were found, they were quickly tried and graciously given the choice of converting to Christianity before being killed.  Again, the Inquisition had no authority over anyone who was not baptized, thus it could not confer such a grace.

Those that chose conversion were strangled with a "Garrote" (a wire tied to the throat and tightened until death).  Right on the "Garrote" rest of the sentence is completely wrong for the reasons that have already been mentioned.

Their bodies were then burned at the stake.  Those that chose not to convert, were burned alive. Again, the Inquisition could not force anyone to convert, but it could use all of its authority to force back into Catholicism those who, for whatever reason, had converted.

In any event, they would be killed, by strangulation, and then burned or burned alive in any event.  The name of Carvajal and many other names are mentioned as meeting that fate. So...I do not want to repeat what I have already said. But, some of the latest research shows that in the New World the Inquisition was probably more preoccupied with abuses by the clergy - than with the relapsed Jews. I believe it was around 1600 that there was a synagogue in Mexico City and knowledge of its existence was in the public domain and no one did anything about it.

To save their lives, Spanish Jews began to convert to Christianity -- but continued to hide and observe their Jewish faith.  It was not to save their lives. They could have stayed alive as Abraham Seneor did, if they left Spain. They converted to Catholicism because they did not want to leave Spain or its possessions. In fact, some Jewish historians lament what happened at this time as one of the greatest tragedies to befall the Jewish people, for thousands of them chose to be, not Catholics, but Spaniards! I hope you see this. Catholics is something they may have never become, although outwardly they went to the church. Spaniards they are to this day. I once met a very distinguished physician whose name was Benbassat. I asked him what his name meant and he said "Beni tohanim Sephardit", which means the Son of pure Spaniards.

Thus, they began to be referred to as "Crypto Jews."   Right on this

Funny, when I did my research on Revilla (Guerrero, Tamaulipas), our ancestors who established it had over 20,000 lambs and sheep, yet no pigs are mentioned.  Right on this too. The Calleja Report, on which I have published and I just made a presentation in Victoria, mentions thousands of horses, cows, sheep, goats, but not a single pig!!! Actually Revilla had another thing. It was founded by de la Garza with people from what is now Cerralvo, and like Cerralvo, there was no church at the settlement's plaza; it was located away from it.


Recommended video, entitled "The Last Sephardic Jew." You can get more information by writing to the following e-mail address:  You can direct your letter to Marta Mira.  I believe they are in Barcelona, Spain.
Sent by Jaime Cader

Image of Spain by Ramón Martínez-López
1961  English  Book 284 p. illus. 26 cm.  Austin, University of Texas 

In El Tribunal De La Inquisición En México (Siglo XVI), Ibáñez explains that from 1522 to 1600, the Holy Office tried 1,488 individuals in New Spain for different allegations.  Eighty-four were tried for relapsing into Judaism (chart).  

Toro, Alfonso. Los Judíos en la Nueva España México, Publicaciones del AGN, 1932.

Ibáñez, Yolanda Mariel El Tribunal De La Inquisición En México (Siglo XVI), Editorial Porrua, México, 1984.  Frank Longoria 

The Jews in New Spain; faith, flame, and the inquisition Seymour B Liebman1970 English  Book 381 p. illus., ports. 23 cm.  Coral Gables, Fla., University of Miami Press ; ISBN: 087024129X   

The Marranos of Spain : from the late 14th to the early 16th century, according to contemporary Hebrew sources B Netanyahu1999 3rd ed., updated and expanded. English  Book xi, 302 p. ; 23 cm. Ithaca, N.Y. : Cornell University Press, ; ISBN: 0801435862 (cloth : alk. paper) 0801485681 (pbk. : alk. paper) 



Our Lady of Visitation Catholic Church
March 3rd,
Illustrated Presentation by Angel Santos Suarez
March 5th, Mission Espada, Act of Possession for the Mission in 1731.  
March 5th,
Villa San Agustin de Laredo Genealogical Society
March 6th,
"South Texas Salt Lakes in the Fourth Dimension"
April 3rd  reunion, Descendants of the Angel of Goliad
Index of Civil War Information, available on the Internet
New Book: “Civil War and Revolution on the Rio Grande Frontier: 
                      A Narrative and Photographic History" 
The Espinosa-Oliuares-Aguirre Expedition of 1709
Story of the Texas Rangers begins with familiar name-Stephen F.Austin  


Christy Espinosa / Valley Morning Star

Our Lady of Visitation Catholic Church 

Historic church may get help from County, Diocese looks at restoration plan for 1880 building by Allen Essex
Valley Morning Star Online Edition

Sent by JD Villarreal

The front of the altar of Our Lady of Visitation Catholic Church appears to be in good condition, unlike most parts of the 19th century building. Cameron County and Diocese of Brownsville officials are trying to work out a plan to restore the historic Santa Maria church.

SANTA MARIA — In the horse-and-buggy days, Our Lady of Visitation Catholic Church was a busy part of a thriving community.

But today, only a large white barn owl and a big beehive occupy the crumbling chapel.

Guadalupe De Leon McLeskey, traveled all the way from New Orleans to see the church Monday, the place where she received her confirmation.  The frail 81-year-old cannot remember many details about that long-ago ceremony, but she recalled her childhood when she and her sister, the late Socorro De Leon  Longoria, attended Mass at the church.

It is likely that she was also baptized at the small church, McLeskey said.  Her daughter, Edna McLeskey, 42, said she drove her gravely ill mother down from Louisiana because she wanted to see the little church and her hometown one more time.

Edna McLeskey lived in Santa Maria until she was in the fourth grade, when her family moved to Corpus Christi in 1974, she said. She recalls her Aunt Socorro taking her to Mass in the church.

A plaque placed on the church in 1967 by the Quinton Stockwell Chapter of the Daughters of the American Colonists states the church was built by the Oblate Fathers in 1880, using plans prepared by a French priest, the Rev. Pierre Yves Keralum (1817-1872). The church was dedicated in 1882.

Keralum, also known as the Lost Missionary, was ordained as Oblate priest in Marseilles, France, in 1852, Texas Historical Commission records state. That year he came to Texas as a member of the Missionary Oblates of Mary Immaculate.

Keralum also designed Our Lady of Refuge Church in Roma and Our Lady of Immaculate Conception Cathedral in Brownsville.  As a missionary, he covered a large area of South Texas. He disappeared while traveling in 1872 and his remains were not found until 10 years later.

Cameron County and Diocese of Brownsville officials are trying to work out a plan through which the county can restore the historic chapel.  Officials are seeking a one-year lease during which they would conduct a feasibility study, using a $25,000 Texas Historical Commission grant, along with local funds, county documents state.

If restoration takes place, the county will ask the Diocese of Brownsville for a 99-year lease, said Dylbia Jeffierie Vega, an attorney for the commissioners court.

Diocese of Brownsville spokeswoman Brenda Riojas said that as late as 1983 the Rev. Francis Schoutten of Holy Spirit Catholic Church in Progreso held Mass at the little Santa Maria church on the fourth Sunday of each month. But now the roof is perforated with holes and large cracks, and gaps in the brick walls show the church may soon be only a memory.

Cameron County Commissioner Edna Tamayo of Harlingen said. "If we don’t do something, using this (state grant) process, it is going to fall down."  The county already operates a park with a swimming pool and community center, which houses a Family Learning Center, on the grounds next to the church leased from the diocese.

Former Harlingen Mayor Sam Lozano said his mother, Virginia Cavazos Lozano, who lived in La Feria as a girl, was baptized at the Santa Maria church and attended Mass there.  "It means a lot to me and meant a lot to my mother," he said. "I used to take her there before she moved to California in 1958."

Lozano said he is glad the building will be preserved, but is worried about keeping its sanctity as a church.  Preserving the history of how the Oblate missionaries came to the Valley in the 1800s would be the focus of the museum, Cameron County Judge Gilberto Hinojosa said.

Using public funds to preserve the historic church is perfectly justifiable because it was such a key part of Rio Grande Valley history, he said. "It just happens that this area was settled by Oblate priests," Hinojosa said.  Posted by: Mike Perez on Feb 09, 05 | 9:57 am | Profile

Illustrated Presentation by Angel Santos Suarez
Master potter from Tonalá, Jalisco, Mexico
March 3, 2005, 12:00 - 1:30 P.M., The University of Texas at Austin

Contact: Dolores García, Center for Mexican American Studies, College of Liberal Arts, The University of Texas at Austin, 512.475.6973 or 512-471-4557,


(Austin, TX)- The Center for Mexican American Studies is proud to bring Angel Santos Juarez, master potter from Tonalá, Jalisco, Mexico, to the University of Texas at Austin to give a presentation and demonstration of the range of his repertoire and his pottery making techniques, an essential expression of the rich ceramic heritage of Mexico.  Mr. Santos is an artist who uses traditional methods of hand painting and hand burnishing.  He uses natural earth colors and polishes his creations with a pyrite-burnishing tool. The beauty and sophistication of his work has earned him many awards, and his work is found in museums and private collections throughout Mexico and the United States.

The illustrated presentation will be given in the Gebauer Building (GEB 4.200), on Thursday, March 3, 2005 from 12:00 - 1:30 P.M.  Mr. Santos will present in Spanish with a translation by Cristina Cabello de Martinez of the Department of Spanish and Portuguese and the Center for Mexican American Studies.  A reception and demonstration of Mr. Santos' pottery making will take place at La Peña, 227 Congress Avenue, from 6:00 - 7:30 P.M., also on Thursday, March 3, 2005.  Both events are free and open to the public.

This is the first in a series of events planned to honor master folk artists from rich folk art producing areas in Jalisco, Michoacan, and Oaxaca, Mexico.

SPONSORS:  This event is co-sponsored by the Center for Mexican American Studies and The Mexican Center (Lozano Long Institute for Latin American Studies), College of Liberal Arts, at The University of Texas at Austin, , El Interior, La Peña, Las Manitas Avenue Café, and Turquoise Door.  Special acknowledgement for the support of Professor Harold Liebowitz and Alma Carrillo of the Department of Middle Eastern Studies.

Elvira Prieto  
Academic Advisor, Center for Mexican American Studies
University of Texas at Austin
1 University Station F9200
Austin, TX  78712
WMB 5.102
Phone: (512) 471-2134  Fax: (512) 471-9639

Special Mass, Mission Espada on Saturday, March 5, 2005 at 10:00am, a reading of the
Act of Possession for the Mission in 1731.  The new Archbishop is scheduled to attend.

Villa San Agustin de Laredo Genealogical Society
Saturday, March 5th, 2005, 10:00 a.m.
Meet at Nuestra Senora del Refugio Catholic  Church 
Lecture by Beatriz de la Garza, Ph. D., on "Old Guerrero"
Sent by George Gause


"South Texas Salt Lakes in the Fourth Dimension"
Sent by George Gause

EDINBURG--David Mycue, Curator of the Margaret H. McAllen Archives at the Museum of South Texas History, will lecture on "South Texas Salt Lakes in the Fourth Dimension" at the Museum, 2 p.m. Sunday, March 6. 

 "It will cover the history of an outstanding geologic formation in Hidalgo County, 26 miles north of the Courthouse in Edinburg," Mycue's synopsis begins. 

"Use of salt by Native Americans, Spaniards, and Mexicans before the region became part of the United States is discussed.  Problems arising from contentious ownership of the minerals have loomed large in Texas legal history.  The fate of the Salt Lakes during subsequent events---Civil War, Reconstruction, early Pioneer Era---are likewise covered.   "The importance of salt in the varying economies of the lower Rio Grande Valley will be emphasized.

April 3rd reunion,  Goliad
Seeking descendants of Lt. Col. Telesforo Alavez or Alvarez  
We are looking for family members of Lt. Col. Telesforo Alavez or Alvarez. He was a member of the Regimiento Permanente de Cuautla compania 6. He entered his military service on Jan. 5, 1815 to Dec. 1837. Possible Birthplace is Toluca, Mexico or amanalaco de Becerra.

You may contact us at 
 or   Thank you, Rudy Ramirez and Rebecca Shokrian, descendants of the Angel of Goliad : Panchita Alvarez Texan Heroine  
Buscamos parientes de el Coronel Telesforo Alavez or Alvarez. Fue el miembro de el Regimiento Permanente de Cuautla Compania 6. Entro en el ejercito el 5 de enero,1815 hasta deciembre 1837. Nacio tal vez en Toluca, Mexico o Amanalaco de Becerra. Tengan la bondad de ponerse en contacto con nosotros:
 o  Muchas gracias
  Rudy Ramirez y Rebeca Shokrian decendientes de la Angel de Goliad: Panchita Alvarez una heroe de Tejas.                                       

ndex of Civil War Information, available on the Internet

First to enter and always last to leave . .

Santos Benavides ws born on November 1, 1823 in Laredo, Texas. As a young man he first tasted the sting of battle during Mexico's Federalist-Centralist wars which ravaged the Rio Grande Valley from 1838-1840. In 1856, he became Mayor of Laredo and at the time of the Civil War, he had become a leading politican and financial figure in the area. he rose quickly in the Conferederat ranks from Captain to Colonel.

Commanding his own regiment, he was the highest rankng Mexican American in the Confererate Army. Although Generals Hamiliton Lee, Slaughter, and Magruder recommended promotion for Benavides to Brigadier General, Colonial John "Rip"Ford was against such a decision, feeling it would dimish his role in the Rio Grande exploits.

In March of 1864, Confederate Brigadier General Hamilton P. Lee asked Colonel Benavides to ride to Brownsville to save the 100 man post which was under seige from elements of the Union's XIII Corps. Included in this group was the 2nd Texas Union Calvary, a Brownsville unit newly formed of Unionist Mexican-Texans. The 33rd Calvary commanded by Colonel Benavides rose to the occasion, and drove the Union forces back. A month after General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox, the Civil War ended for Santos Benavides, his two courageous brothers, and the Mexican-Texans of the Lone Star State. "Tejanos" (As the Mexican American from Texas are called) had been among the first to take up arms for the Confederacy and were among the last to surrender.

New Book by Dr. Jerry Thompson and Lawrence T. Jones III
“Civil War and Revolution on the Rio Grande Frontier: 
A Narrative and Photographic History" 

Sent by George Gause 

EDINBURG--Dr. Jerry D. Thompson of Laredo spoke to the Museum of South Texas History will speak about his new book,  “Civil War and Revolution on the Rio Grande Frontier: A Narrative and Photographic History" and autograph copies at the Museum of South Texas History at 6 p.m. Thursday, Feb. 24.

Dr. Thompson’s work, published by the Texas State Historical Association, contains over 100 photographic images, chiefly from Brownsville and Matamoros during the U.S. Civil War.  Many of these were discovered in 1999 after being lost to history for more than a century.

The co-author of the book, Lawrence T. Jones III, is an authority on early Texas photography and the American West.  His collaboration with Dr. Thompson brought to life  the 1860-1869 decade along the southern reaches of the Rio Grande.  Thompson is Regents Professor of History at Texas A&M International University in Laredo.    

This event will be open to FRIENDS of the Museum only. Phone  (956) 383-6911, for reservations and for information about becoming a FRIEND of the Museum. Individual FRIENDships are $35 a year and family FRIENDships are $50.  FRIENDS will also be entitled to a 10 per cent discount on the purchase of the book.  

Dr. Thompson is an authority on the U.S. Civil War in the Southwest and the Rio Grande Valley. His book covers a tumultuous decade. Four separate armies were fighting in South Texas and Northeastern Mexico. Meanwhile the city of Bagdad, in Mexico south of Padre Island, briefly became one of the world's busiest ports by exporting cotton from the Confederate States of America to overcome the U.S. Navy's blockade of southern American ports..

Jim McKone
Public Relations Officer, Museum of South Texas History
121 E. McIntyre, Edinburg TX 78541
Phone 956-383-6911

The Overlooked Entrada

The Espinosa-Oliuares-Aguirre Expedition of 1709
Anibal Gonzalez

Published in the Sayersville, Texas Historical Association Bulletin
Number 2, Fall 1982
Shared by Micky Garcia

In April, 1709, two Franciscan priests and 15 soldiers came from the Rio Grande (about 30 miles from Eagle Pass) all the way to the Colorado looking for a delegation of Tejas Indians they never found. During their search, they crossed to the eastern side of the Colorado not far below Austin, traveled on east for about fifteen miles through oak thickets, re-crossed the river, and traveled northeast for about five miles up to Powell Bend before they stopped, deciding not to cross the river again at that point because the wilderness in front of them was impenetrable. Once back at their original river crossing, they found some Yojuane Indians who gave them information about the Tejas, agreed to become messengers to them and invited the Spaniards to visit their native village near the headwaters of Wilbarger Creek.

This visit to the Yojuane village was the climax of the whole journey. Espinosa's diary describes a moving scene in which Spaniards and Indians touched each other with caressing tenderness and said farewell reluctantly - - an intimate cultural encounter which reflects the human quality of this small Spanish expedition whose adventurers, led not by soldiers but by friars, displayed no greed or violence but, instead, deep religious feelings, a certain innocence and sense of humor.

The names which this expedition gave to streams along their way persisted for many decades, in some cases up to our day (e.g. San Pedro Springs, San Antonio River, Salado Creek). But what makes the journey a historical landmark is that the path the expedition chose between the San Antonio and the Colorado Rivers set up a pattern which became a standard route for subsequent Spanish expeditions to East Texas throughout most of the Eighteenth Century. The expedition failed to accomplish its official objective of meeting the Tejas. But contact with the Yojuanes created a communication link with the East Texas Indians which kept alive the Franciscans' determination to re-establish a mission there - -a dream that came true only in 1716. The Yojuanes, by the way, eventually joined other Indian groups to request the establishment of Spanish missions in Central Texas - - which may have had an influence on the opening of three missions near Rockdale about 1746.

Espinosa's diary of the journey is also a valuable source of information for those trying'-to reconstruct a picture of the plants, animals and people which existed between the Rio Grande and the Colorado before Europeans settled in. It was a small but important Spanish expedition, though it is hardly mentioned in the standard works which deal with the history of our area. Fr. Espinosa's diary was not translated into English until 1929. There is little scholarship devoted to it. The present article will try to put in historical context this expedition, as well as suggest the route they probably followed within our general area. The portions of Espinosa's diary quoted here have been translated from the Spanish by the author.

Historical Setting
The first East Texas missions were reluctantly abandoned in 1693. For the next 15 years, the friars kept trying to enlist government help to re-establish them. By 1708, the Spanish Viceroy decided that renewed contact and a stable relationship with the Tejas Indians was perhaps the only way to save East Texas from falling utterly under the influence of the French led by St. Denis. As a first step to explore that possibility, the Viceroy decided to support the Fanciscans in organizing an expedition to the San Marcos River. There they expected to meet a delegation of the Tejas and to arrange a mission for them.

The expedition set out from San Juan Bautista on April 5, 1709. According to Espinosa's diary, the expedition was undertaken "by the Reverend Father Fray Antonio de Olivares, apostolic preacher, commissary of the holy office and incumbent guardian [superior] of the College of the Holy Cross of Queretaro, in the company of Father Fray Isidro Felix de Espinosa, apostolic preacher and missionary minister of the mission of San Juan Bautista of the Rio Grande del Norte, assisted by the corporal caudillo [commander] of the presidio [garrison] of the Rio Grande del Norte, who is captain don Pedro de Aguirre, with the number of 14 military men from his company, according to the pertinent order issued by His Excellency Senor Duque de Albuquerque, Viceroy, Governor and Captain General of this New Spain."

The Journey
1. From the Rio Grande to the San Marcos River.
After traveling without much difficulty for about ten days in a northeasterly direction, the expedition reached San Pedro Springs where San Antonio is today. According to Espinosa, they met there some Indians from the Siupan, Chaulaames and Sijames tribes. With them they crossed the San Antonio [de Padua] River and visited a populous rancheria [primitive village] on the eastern bank of Salado Creek. All three of these streams were first given their present names by Espinosa in his diary of this entrada, an expedition officially "entering" a frontier province.

They crossed the Comal River the next day and stopped by the Guadalupe River waiting for a delegation from the Sanac Indians to get information about the Tejas. Either the Tejas or the Sanac (the text is unclear) had been summoned to come but neither had arrived. The Spaniards stayed overnight across the Guadalupe, waiting in vain. The next morning, they made smoke signals, with no response, at different intervals of their renewed march towards the San Marcos River. They followed a course close to the edge of the Edwards Plateau, a new route which became customary for Spanish expeditions at least up to 1788. On the afternoon of April 15, they touched the upland divide and reached the manontia/ [spring source] of the San Marcos River, where they camped.

2. From the San Marcos to the Colorado.
On Tuesday, April 16, they crossed the San Marcos at a point "two arquebus shot" from its source [present-day Aquarena Springs] and, moving about two leagues to the east, away from the edge of the plateau, reached the Blanco River, which they called San Rafael - - to whom they entrusted the whole good aim of their journey; shortly afterwards they crossed a small spring in a "grove of live oaks."

They turned again to the northeast and, after crossing some hills which protruded from the plateau, they touched Onion Creek not far from its juncture with Slaughter Creek. They called Onion Creek Garrapatas because its margins were full of ticks [gorrapatas]. According to Espinosa, "all, even though against their will, carried away many of them." They killed and ate a lean buffalo [ciboto] that evening.

Espinosa's entry for April 17 gives an idea of how and where they met the Colorado River:
"Wednesday 17 we left in search of the Colorado or Espiritu Santo river, which is all one, to the N.E. bearing, trying to find some Indians who would give us an account of the Tejas, since the Indians of the Siupan nation had told us they did not know of them. At a distance of only 5 leagues to the Espiritu Santo river, the guide saw four buffaloes, and in a short time all fell into the hands of the soldiers, who as sayones [literally "long skirts, "an obscure, archaic expression], made anatomy of them, providing the Real with meat. We stopped near the said river, having walked 5 leagues." [The Real, literally "Royal," signifies the expeditionary group, the Royal Standard they carried, and the place, such as camp, where it is set up.]

All considered, it is probable that this camp was set up not far above the Hornsby Bend of the Colorado in eastern Travis County.

3. Colorado Adventures.
The next day, after making a thick smoke to see if the Indians would respond, and not finding any traces or footprints, they decided to send a group to the other side of the river to investigate. The two friars, the Indian guide, the captain and half of the soldiers set out across the river to a place apparently abundant in mussel shells [mariscada], The Real stayed behind with orders to make a thick smoke signal if they were to have any news of Indians. Here is Espinoza's description of the Colorado River where they crossed to the eastern bank:

"We came to the river, which has a guard on either side of luxuriant trees, nut trees [nogales], ash trees, poplars [cottonwood], elms, willows, mulberries and wild grapevines much taller .and thicker than those of Castile. It has sand banks which mark how high it rises, a quarter of a league wide. The water is of the best we have found."

Coming out of the river they found what appeared to be an abandoned Indian rancheria. After passing this place, they went in search of Indians, going towards the east. Even though they were following an Indian guide, they underwent a most difficult and unsuccessful march "through some montes [thickets] all of oaks which were about 6 leagues in length." It seems likely that they reached the vicinity of Wilbarger Creek - - possibly the Otates Creek later referred to by Espinosa - - and, not wanting to go over it or to turn north into the wilderness of the monte, they went down the river again, crossed to the western bank and, still looking for Indians, traveled Northeast for about two leagues "always in sight" of the Colorado. This suggests that they went towards Powell Bend. Finally they stopped at some charcos [large puddles] not far from the river. They did not travel any further because, in Espinosa's words, "the monte that offered itself to our sight was so much that we could not penetrate it."

They spent a cold night there. The next morning they decided to go back to the Real along the bank that had no monte and which they had not yet explored. In the process of doing that, some people in the group thought they saw smoke rising from the bank with the oak forest they already knew. Crossing back to the eastern side to investigate the smoke, they found no traces of people, but were surprised to find many buffalo trails going to and from the river, since they had not seen even old buffalo tracks from the Guadalupe to the Rio Grande. Staying on the eastern bank, and probably using one of those paths, they started the return trip to the Real through rough oak country,
possibly following the flood plain - - certainly away from the frustrating monte. They killed some buffaloes for meat and then saw heavy smoke rising from the site of the Royal camp. On the way back they amused themselves by playing bullfighting routines with a buffalo and eventually got lost. They did not pass at their original crossing until after dark.

Finally arriving at the Real, they dismounted and were received with great joy and affection by an Indian chief named Cantona - - who was well known to the Spaniards - -and about 40 Indians from the Yojuan, Simomos and Tusonibi tribes. The Indians had arrived that morning after being informed the night before of the presence of the Spaniards by two young Indian scouts who had traced the smoke signals that were made at the camp upon the arrival of the expedition at the Colorado. The two young spies had watched until they made sure the Spaniards were not a band of Apaches. Espinosa learned that up to 77 Indians had crossed the river, one by one, preceded by a well-manufactured otate [Aztec word for cane] cross and three old pictures of the Virgin of Guadalupe. Almost half of the Indians, tired of waiting for the two missionaries to return from their exploration, had gone back to their rancheria, four leagues to the Northeast; the rest remained with the Spaniards that night.

"Seeing that our diligence in traveling up to very near the Otates Creek had not produced the effect of meeting the Tejas, and knowing that the Indian captain of the Yojuanes called Cantona comes and goes to the Tejas with his people", writes Espinosa, the missionaries tried to confirm the rumors they had heard about the Tejas moving their abode towards the San Marcos River. Cantona denied the truth of such rumors, told them that the Tejas only came as far as the Colorado to hunt buffalo, and informed them that the Tejas settlements were still "three days travel away" (to the Northeast). He also gave them the bad news that Bernardino, a renowned ex-Christian trouble-maker, was their chief. Discouraged by this report, and knowing that Captain Aguirre did not have permission to travel much further beyond the Colorado, the Spaniards decided to return to the Rio Grande.

But when morning came, the Indians begged them to come and visit their rancheria so that their women and children would have a chance to see them too. Their request was granted. Preceded by Cantona on horseback bearing a silver-mounted cane, a gift of the Spaniards, they left a few soldiers at the Real and went to the rancheria. It was probably located near the headwaters of Wilbarger Creek, somewhere along the western boundary of present Bastrop County. There they met with effusive physical demonstrations of affection by the whole village. This is Espinosa's description of that historic visit:

"We arrived in that manner in sight of the huts, and an Indian came out on horseback to meet us. He then turned around to tell the other Indians, who immediately came out in such a crowd to receive us that it inspired tenderness to see them, because not a single Indian came out with arrows but with their hands raised or crossed; some with their privates [cuero pequeno] covered, the majority or almost all of them completely naked. As soon as we dismounted, they surrounded us with such insistence and determination that we knew not where to turn. They were giving shouts of joy, they were embracing us, they were reaching up to our faces and arms, and then doing the same in their faces as if softly rubbing [untando, the word for anointing] them or incorporating [embodying] themselves with us. This is their custom when they want to make others their friends or family members. As a matter of fact, there was not an Indian man, woman or youth left who did not touch us to their heart's content. They would even bring breast-feeding babies so that we could caress their faces - with less than that they would not be happy. We shed many tears to see such a multitude of souls in the desert without the light and knowledge of our Catholic Law - - since, judging by the number of huts and by everything we saw, there must have been two thousand souls living there. We divided tobacco among as many women as we could, but it was far from enough since we had not anticipated so many people. We gave a little piece of brown sugar candy [choncaca, a Mexican word] to all the boys and girls we could, and caressed them. If our departure had not been so pressing, we, the friars, would have stayed longer with them. We said farewell with a lot of pain and returned to the Real, having traveled coming and going eight leagues until after noon, when we arrived with a lot of sun and no little hunger."

That afternoon, the friars improvised a paper cross painted with ink and gave it to Cantona, who had accompanied them on their way back. Espinosa adds, "We commissioned him to take it to the governor of the Tejas telling him how we had searched for him; that they should go to our missions at the Rio Grande, assuming that they still know where they are; and to show them the cane he had so that they might believe him. He promised to do everything we told him. This being done, we started our return march to the Rio Grande."

4. The Return March
That same Saturday afternoon (April 20) they came, after traveling two leagues, to Onion Creek, where they spent the night. They seem to have touched the creek further downstream than before, probably by trying to avoid the hills.

Next morning after Mass, they marched on to the San Marcos River. At this point in the diary Espinosa writes, "Though it may seem a digression, Your Excellency, I can not fail to mention in passing that, in addition to the fertility of the country exhibited by the variety of flowers, trees and wild fruits, there is a great abundance of hemp in the depressions of the ravines - -so much thriving, that it seems to be cultivated, though it receives no other care than that of the liberal hand [of Nature] which beautifies everything; there is enough in the fields to supply all the rope and/or clothes-making [jarcio] needs of the Indian women." Our naive and enthusiastic chronicler then proceeds to describe at length the vegetation, animals and Indian customs found between the Rio Grande and the Colorado - - the whole area covered by their expedition. He adds, "Lastly, this is the best of all the lands discovered, and the natives are particularly suited for establishing the truths of our Holy Faith and extending the domains of the Royal Crown." They camped that night at the San Marcos River and the next morning crossed it at the familiar place near its source.

The rest of the trip to the Rio Grande was relatively uneventful, except for an encounter with some Papoa Indians around the Medina River. They reached the Rio Grande on Sunday, April 28th. Espinosa's diary ends with these words:  "We arrived at three-thirty in the afternoon at the mission of San Juan Bautista from where we had set out, with health, success and consolation, for all of which we thanked God, to whom be glory, honor and praise forever and ever. Amen."

Selected Bibliography

Bolton. Herbert E., Texas In the Middle Eighteenth Century: Studies in Spanish Colonial
History and Administration.
University of Texas Press, Austin. 1915, 1970, pp, 10 13,
32.41, 135-278. map. 

Bolton. Herbert E.. "The Jumano Indians, 1650-1771," Southwestern Historical Quarterly,
vol. XV. pp. 68.69. 

Bonilla. Teniente de Infanteria D. Antonio. "Breve compendio de los sucesos ocurridos en la
Provincia de Texas, desde su Conquista o Reduccion hasta la fecha," 1772. Documentos
para la Historic Eclesiastica y Civil de la Prouincia de Texas, Libro Primero. Tomo XXVII.
1792. photocopy of document. Catholic Archives of Texas.

Buckley, Eleanor C,. "The Aguayo Expedition into Texas and Louisiana, 1719 1722," Quarterly of the Texas Historical Association, vol. XV, July 1911. Number 1, pp. 33-45. 

Campbell. T. N.. "Yojuane Indians," Handbook of Texas, vol. Ill, p. 1138. 

Castaneda, Carlos E.. "Silent Years in Texas History," Preliminary Studies of the Texas
Catholic Historical Society, vol. II. April 1935, Number 8 pp. 5-15. 

De Leon. Alonso, Viaje que el ano de 1690 hizo el Gouernador Atonso de Leon desde
Cuahui/a hasta la Carolina. Prouincia habitada de Texas y otras naciones al Nordeste de
/a Nueua Espana. Map, transcript, Texas State Archives, 

Espinosa. Isidro Felix de, Diario derrotero de la entrada . . . 1709, Archive General de Indias,
Sevilla. printed copy of document in P. Otto Maas' collection: viajes de Misioneros Fran.
ciscanos a ta conquisto del Nueuo Mexico, Sevilla. 1915, pp. 50-63. 

Folk. Paul J . transl.. "Captain Don Domingo Ramon's Diary of His Expedition into Texas in
1716." Preliminary Studies of the Texas Catholic Historical Society, vol. II. April 1933.
Number 5 pp. 2.15. 

Forrestal, Peter P.. transl.."Pena's Diary of the Aguayo Expedition." Preliminary Studies of
the Texas Catholic Historical Society, vol. II, Jan. 1937. Number 8, pp. 3-5. 20-25. 

Forrestal. Peter P.. transl . "The Solis Diary of 1767," Preliminary Studies of the Texas
Catholic Historical Society, vol. 1. March 1931, Number 6. p-38. 

Gonzalez. Anibal A., ed.. "From the San Marcos to the Otates; A New Translation and Critical Analysis of Espinosa's Diary from April 15th to 21st. 1709," Sayersui/fe Historical
Association Report "I. (in preparation).

Goodwin, Frank. "Espinosa. Isidro Felix de," Handbook of Texas, The Texas State Histori-cal Association, Austin. 1952, vol I. pp. 572-573. 

Hatcher. Mattie Austin, transl, "The Expedition of Domingo Teran de los Rios into Texas
(1691.1692)." Preliminary Studies of the Texas Catholic Historical Society, vol. II,
January 1932. Number 1, pp. 3.4, 15-24, 45 46, 48, 60-64. 

Hester. Thomas. R , Digging into South Texas Prehistory, Corona Publishing Company,
San Antonio. 1980. pp. 38.56. 

M'Caleb, Walter F,. "Some Obscure Points in the Mission Period of Texas." THSA Quarter
ly. vol. 1. 1897.1898, pp. 216.225.

Pool. William C., A Historical Atlas of Texas, The Encino Press, Austin. 1975, pp.67. 

Tous. Gabriel, trans],. "Ramon Expedition: Espinosa's Diary of 1716," Preliminary Studies
of the Texas Catholic Historical Society, vol 1, April 1930. Number 4. pp. 2 15 

Tous. Gabriel, transl . "The Espinosa-Otivares-Aguirre Expedition of 1709: Espinosa's
Diary," Preliminary Studies of the Texas Catholic Historical Society, vol. I. March 1930,
Number 3. pp 2.14

U- S. Geological Survey. Austin, engraved topographical map, 1951 (scale 1:1,000,000).
U. S. Geological Survey. Texas, S.E.. topographical map, 1973 (scale 1:500.000).

Williams. J. W , Old Texas Trails, Bakin Press. Burnet. 1979. pp. Ill 180


THE TEXAS MONTHLY, February 2005
Texas History 101
The story of the Texas Rangers begins with a familiar name-Stephen F.Austin  by Katherine Sands

For many, the Texas Rangers bring to mind heroes roaming the open range, keeping everyone from Austin to Amarillo safe from marauders, murder, and mayhem. While many Texans would quickly claim to be familiar with this iconic image, few could tell the complicated history of the Rangers. Even some historians, such as Walter Prescott Webb, have glossed over the group's more sordid affairs. It's time to examine the legend.

The story of the Rangers begins with a familiar Texas name-Stephen F. Austin. In 1822 Austin settled his colonists at a site between the lower Colorado and Brazos rivers, and a year later he hired ten experienced frontiersmen to fight the Native Americans. In 1835, the year before the
outbreak of the Texas Revolution, Texas lawmakers named the group, which had grown to 56 men divided into three companies, the Texas Rangers. The Rangers played a minor role in the Texas Revolution, performing menial tasks and serving as scouts and couriers for $1.25 a day.

Work for the Rangers picked up in 1838 when the Republic of Texas's second elected president, Mirabeau B. Lamar, used an expanded Texas Ranger force to wage all-out war against the Native Americans, who were angry because the government of Texas was forcing them off their land. Annexation into the United States of America in 1845 and the Mexican War in 1846 propelled the
Rangers into the spotlight. Their ruthless techniques led the Mexican people to dub them "los diablos Tejanos" ("the Texas devils"). After the war ended, the United States took responsibility for the protection of the frontier, and the Rangers were again left without a real function. When the Civil War broke out in 1861, the unoccupied Rangers individually joined the men in gray.

With the 1870's came an increase of violence in Texas-Native Americans, Mexican bandits, and Anglo robbers wrecked havoc along the Rio Grande-prompting the Legislature to expand the Rangers' size and power during the period between 1874 through 1882. The remainder of the nineteenth century saw a Ranger force that was losing its prestige as the face of the frontier changed and the need for Ranger-style enforcement dwindled.

After almost three decades of relative quiet, the Mexican uprising against President Porfirio Díaz in 1910 stirred up tensions around the border. The Rangers came out of hibernation to once again meet the Mexicans head-on, but this time with far graver results. In 1915 authorities in McAllen arrested Basilio Ramos Jr., who happened to be carrying a copy of a revolutionary manifesto called the Plan de San Diego. The manifesto called for Mexican Americans, African Americans, Native Americans, and Japanese to band together and free themselves from United States oppression. With more raids later that year, the Texas government responded by increasing Ranger companies to their greatest size yet. But with the new recruits came a lack of control and training. With orders to keep Mexican raiders out of Texas, some companies began to adopt a style of vigilante justice.

The Porvenir Massacre of 1917 marked one of the lowest points for the Rangers. A series of robberies by "suspected Mexican bandits" near Presidio County in November, followed by a raid on Brite Ranch in December, led Ranger Company B to Manuel Morales's ranch in Porvenir. When the Rangers left, they had killed fifteen Texans of Mexican origin, instigating the flight of 140 Porvenir residents to Mexico.

Anglo participants blamed the Mexicans for initiating the violence, and historians such as Webb echoed this cadence. But not all agreed with this explanation. Henry Warren, whose father-in-law was killed at Morales's ranch, called the event a massacre, suggested the entire encounter was a
cover-up for an Anglo horse thief, and noted that the event orphaned 42 children. Governor William P. Hobby disbanded Company B and dismissed five Rangers in 1918.

The Porvenir Massacre was just one of many confrontations between Rangers and Mexicans in what historians Charles Harris and Louis Sadler dubbed "the Bloodiest Decade," but sources disagree about the actual death toll. An article by Ben H. Procter in The Handbook of Texassays that the Rangers killed approximately 5,000 Hispanics between 1914 and 1919. The Texas Ranger
Hall of Fame and Museum Web site states that Mexican raids in Texas between 1915-1916 resulted in 21 American and 300 Mexican deaths. Harris and Sadler's The Texas Rangers and the Mexican Revolution cites a similar number for the years 1910-1920.

Regardless of the exact number, the deplorable behavior of the Texas Rangers led Representative José T. Canales of Brownsville to demand the overhaul of the force in January 1919. The Porvenir Massacre was highlighted as one of the most serious acts of Ranger misconduct in Canales's report. The Legislature decided to maintain four Ranger companies but to reduce their numbers and work to attract "men of high moral character" through increased salaries. Lawmakers also created specific procedures for citizen complaints of Ranger transgressions.

After this, Ranger duties varied from catching tequila smugglers during Prohibition to preventing injury and vandalism during Ku Klux Klan demonstrations to keeping oil boomtowns in check. In 1935 the Rangers became one portion of the three-legged stool that included the Highway Patrol and the Headquarters Division. While the Rangers of the first quarter of the century had been chosen based on political patronage, Rangers were now appointed through examinations and recommendations, with increased mental and physical standards.

From 1938 to 1968 the Rangers thrived under Col. Homer Garrison Jr. They became plainclothes detectives-counterparts to the uniformed highway patrolmen. Garrison's successor, Colonel Wilson E. Speir, implemented even higher standards for applicants, including at least eight years of
on-the-job police experience and four hundred to six hundred hours of classroom instruction. Over the past thirty years the force has expanded to become the elite arm of Texas law enforcement. The Rangers of the twenty-first century balance a deference to history-wearing the boots, white hats, and pistol belts of the past-with a dedication to modern law enforcement. Today the diverse force boasts eight companies totaling in 117 Rangers, including one woman, fourteen Hispanics, five African Americans (including Senior Captain Earl Pearson), one Asian, and one Native American.

For those interested in learning more about the Texas Rangers, visit the Texas Ranger Hall of Fame and Museum, in Waco. Go to   for details.
SOURCE: Roberto Calderon



Companies looking to Spanish-speaking employees to help them tap into group's increasing buying power

Companies looking to Spanish-speaking employees to help them tap into group's increasing buying power by Harry R. Weber, The Associated Press, February 21, 2005
Sent by Howard Shorr

ATLANTA -- Tucked inside the aprons of cashiers at a Home Depot store in Miami are translation books to help employees who speak only English to converse with customers who speak only Spanish.

Home Depot might not need the books quite as much in the future, as the nation's largest home improvement store chain joins retailers including Wal-Mart Stores Inc. and Federated Department Stores Inc. in actively recruiting bilingual workers.

Retailers are looking to Spanish-speaking employees to help them tap into the increasing buying power of Hispanics. They note that studies have shown that Hispanics will have $1 trillion in annual purchasing power in the United States by 2008; by 2050, Hispanics will constitute 25 percent of the national work force.

Wal-Mart, the world's largest retail chain, has increased its efforts to recruit Hispanic employees in recent years. At the end of 2004, the Bentonville, Ark.-based company had 128,000 Hispanic workers in the United States, or roughly 10 percent of its 1.2 million employees.

"Because we have a very diverse customer base, we certainly believe our associate base should mirror that as closely as possible," spokeswoman Linda Blakley said. "By doing so, we gain insight into the needs and product preferences of this segment of our customer base and are able to deliver stronger customer service."

Wal-Mart also offers products geared toward Hispanics at stores in predominantly Hispanic communities. Items include different brands of flour, refried beans and health and beauty aids.

This past week, Home Depot, the Atlanta-based chain of 1,890 stores, said it would partner with four national Hispanic organizations to recruit more Spanish-speaking workers for its work force of 325,000.

Hispanic advocacy groups and economists say the efforts not only make retailers more diverse, but also can help boost sales by appealing more to Hispanic customers.

"It's a particularly wise move. It makes you relevant to Hispanics both as a place to buy products and a place to seek employment," said Jeffrey Humphreys, who studies minority buying power as director of the Selig Center at the University of Georgia's Terry College of Business.

Major retailers realize that some Hispanic customers might become frustrated and leave a store if they can't communicate in Spanish with employees, said Barbara Serret, a Hispanic human resources manager at a Home Depot in Miami where about 30 percent of the store's 207 employees are Hispanic.

"Having bilingual employees to help them, you can sell the whole package," Serret said.

Cincinnati-based Federated Department Stores Inc. and Seattle-based Nordstrom Inc. have both worked with some of the same national Hispanic organizations that Home Depot is working with on its recruitment efforts.

Federated, owner of chains including Macy's and Bloomingdale's, began a partnership with the Hispanic Association on Corporate Responsibility within the last year. The program, while new, is going well, spokeswoman Jean Coggan said, though she would not release a breakdown of the number of Hispanics hired by the company, which has 110,000 total employees.

"We have seen steady growth in the Hispanic representation among our employees, both at the management and sales associate level," Coggan said.

Clothing chain Nordstrom has been actively recruiting Hispanic employees through partnerships.

Alfonso Martinez of the Hispanic Association on Corporate Responsibility said that besides retailers, major automakers like General Motors and Ford also are offering scholarships for Hispanic college students and working with hundreds of schools to recruit Hispanic graduates for employment.

"Corporate America is playing catch up to the Hispanic market boon," Humphreys said. "That boon wasn't realized until the 2000 Census, which showed Hispanics' share of the population and buying power was bigger than most everyone had imagined.",1,1536022.story?
  Copyright (c) 2005, The Associated Press  


Abakua Afro-Latin  "Raices" 
Dora the Explorer
1890 NYC Police census  
Little Church  



Frankie Martinez and the Abakua Afro-Latin Dance Company Present an Afro-Latin Dance Theatre Showcase. 

The 30 minute piece entitled
"Raices" will be showcased at Empire Dance Studio in New York City February 25th and 26th. 

For information:


The Children’s Museum of Manhattan has opened a new interactive exhibit featuring the intrepid and highly animated Latina adventuress Dora the Explorer.  
Kids and parents together can climb through the Pyramid, play hide’n’seek in the Rainforest, build a bridge over Crocodile Lake and join the fiesta at Dora’s house. The entire exhibit is bilingual, and at the end, everybody gets to sing “We Did It!” with Dora and Boots.
Kathleen Herles, the voice of Dora the Explorer, officially opened the exhibit in early December.  Not a long trip for her – she was born in Queens and lives in Long Island (though her parents came from Peru).  The installation will remain there at least until December of 2005, and is sponsored by – of all people – Nickelodeon.

1890 NYC Police census  

If you have anyone researching people in New York City in 1890 the following book is a must.

“Aid to Finding Addresses in 1890 New York City Police Census” - Howard M. Jensen. The 1890 New York City Police Census fills the gap for the lost 1890 Federal Census. It covers the county of New York, which in 1890 included Manhattan, the West Bronx and a few adjacent islands. It has not been name indexed so you must find your ancestors by their address. This book indexes every address in the 894 extant books of the original 1008 books, listing the book number the address will be found in and a cross reference of that number to the film number at the Latter-Day Saints Library in Salt Lake City. It lists separately Asylums & Children's Homes, Estates, Homes & Miscellaneous, Hospitals, Hotels, Jails and Prisons. With 114 of the census books lost, this book will save you endless hours looking for an address in a lost book. It will also alert you to the fact that some addresses are in more than one book.
2003, 5½ x 8½, paper, 282 pp.$35.00  J0880  ISBN: 1-58549-880-7
It can be found at URL:
It can also be found at  at a discount price of $29.75

Little Church  

Sent by Lou Marchetti
A sobbing little girl stood near a small church from which she had been turned away because it was "too crowded."  "I can't go to Sunday School," she sobbed to the pastor as he walked by.

Seeing her shabby, unkempt appearance, the pastor guessed the reason and, taking her by the hand, took her inside and found a place for her in the Sunday school class. The child was so happy that they found room for her, and she went to bed that night thinking of the children who have no place to worship Jesus.  Some two years later, this child lay dead in one of the poor tenement buildings. Her parents called for the kindhearted pastor who had befriended their daughter to handle the final arrangements.

As her poor little body was being moved, a worn and crumple d red purse was found which seemed to have been rummaged from some trash dump.

Inside was found 57 cents and a note, scribbled in childish handwriting, which read: "This is to help build the little church bigger so more children can go to Sunday School."

For two years she had saved for this offering of love.  When the pastor tearfully read that note, he knew instantly what he would do. Carrying this note and the cracked, red pocketbook to the pulpit, he told the story of her unselfish love and devotion. He challenged his deacons to get busy and raise enough money for the! larger building.

But the story does not end there...  A newspaper learned of the story and published It. It was read by a wealthy realtor who offered them a parcel of land worth many thousands.

When told that the church could not pay so much, he offered to sell it to the little church for 57 cents.

Church members made large donations. Checks came from far and wide. Within five years the little girl's gift had increased to $250,000.00--a huge sum for that time (near the turn of the century). Her unselfish love had paid large dividends.

When you are in the city of Philadelphia, look up Temple Baptist Church, with a seating capacity of 3,300. And be sure to visit Temple University, where thousands of students are educated.

Have a look, too, at the Good Samaritan Hospital and at a Sunday School building which houses hundreds of beautiful children, built so that no child in the area will ever need to be left outside during Sunday school time.

In one of the rooms of this building may be seen the picture of the sweet face of the little girl whose 57 cents, so sacrificially saved, made such remarkable history. Alongside of it is a portrait of her kind pastor, Dr. Russel H. Conwell, author of the book, "Acres of Diamonds".

This is a true story, which goes to show WHAT GOD CAN DO W ITH 57 CENTS.


Mexico holds first public trial
Rebozos weave long history
Bautismos Jerez, Zac. Año de 1651


Abstract: Mexico holds first public trial Feb 18, 2005
Sent by Johanna de Soto

MONTEMORELOS, Mexico (AP) -- In a quiet courtroom in northern Mexico, a drunk driving case is making history: 19-year-old Alejandro Santana is before a judge, fighting charges he was drunk and crashed his car, killing a passenger and leaving another person a quadriplegic.

The case, which was nearing an end Friday, is the nation's first U.S.-style public trial, replacing a slow and secretive judicial process conducted on paper and moving Mexico a step closer toward reforms President Vicente Fox is seeking nationwide.

So-called oral trials represent a dramatic departure from the current Mexican justice system in which defense lawyers and prosecutors investigate cases, interview witnesses, gather evidence and pass their findings in writing to judges, who review the bulky files before issuing a written verdict. Information is often kept secret, and corruption thrives.

In June, state lawmakers in Nuevo Leon approved oral trials, requiring both sides to argue their cases publicly in all crimes involving property damage or where the defendant is accused of battery or manslaughter.

They hope to eventually expand the program to all trials, and other Mexican states are looking at adopting similar practices.

State officials argued the new proceedings would help streamline Nuevo Leon's judicial system and make trials more transparent.

"This is an act without precedent in our state and in our country," Nuevo Leon Gov. Natividad Gonzalez said when the reforms were approved.

The reforms in Nuevo Leon resemble a proposal presented by President Vicente Fox in March that calls for an overhaul of the federal justice system.

Fox's proposal would also substitute oral public trials for written judgments, clearly delineate the presumption of innocence in the constitution, and reorganize national police forces. It is currently being debated in Congress.

Human rights groups have long asked for broad justice reforms in a country where confessions extracted under torture, botched investigations and an excess of bureaucracy feed a deep mistrust of the system.
Rebozos weave long history

BY VICKY COWAL/The Herald Mexico

El Universal, Domingo 09 de enero de 2005, Nuestro mundo, página 1
Sent by Dorinda Lupe Moreno

The Mexican rebozo, or shawl, is an intricate and very beautiful piece of handiwork. It is also a definitive garment as no other country makes them quite the way Mexico does. The rebozo has a history that goes back many centuries and is a wonderful example of what the meeting of cultures can produce. In the days before the conquest, both men and women used a kind of simple shawl, a lienzo, both for warmth and for carrying bundles. It was woven in backstrap looms from maguey and henequen fibers and there are many examples of them in various codices.

Soon after the Spaniards arrived, they insisted that the Mexican women wear a head covering for entering the churches. Out of this necessity combined with the Spaniards' imported weaving skills came the rebozo (the word comes from the verb rebozar, meaning to cover up), a multi-purpose covering initially woven of just cotton and then later on also of silk and wool, and still to this day a symbol of mexicanidad worn proudly by Mexican women of all social standings.

Decades ago I had the pleasure of knowing a stunning young Mexican woman from Tenancingo in the state of Mexico. She had met a U.S. artist, married him and moved far from her native land to a small town in Massachusetts. She adapted to her new life quickly and easily, but one thing she never
gave up were her rebozos which she wore with enviable style.


Little did I know at the time that Tenancingo was, and still is, one of Mexico's most important centers for the weaving of rebozos. For centuries hundreds of families, many of Matlatzincan ancestry, have been involved in this traditional handicraft, producing works of unparalled elegance. While there are stores that sell rebozos in Tenancingo, where they are most evident is at the huge public market on any day of the week and especiallyand appealingly on the Sunday market days. Then dozens of vendors, mostly the women who do the final knotting of the fringes of the rebozos, stand outside the markets and ply their wares, offering rebozos in a multitude of lengths, colors and patterns.

The rebozos come in four lengths, depending on their use and the size of the women who will wear them: completo (often used to carry a baby on the back ), 3/4's size, mediano, and small ones called ratoncitos (ideal to wear as scarves). The traditional colors of Tenancingo rebozos are combinations of a white background with cream, blue, grey, beige, brown and black patterns.

The patterned rebozos are woven from cotton and were formerly known as rebozos de bolita as the cotton came in balls rather than skeins or ones. A more recent type of rebozo is one made from a synthetic called artisela and referred to as a rebozo reservista.

These are used more for formal occasions and come in exquisite solid colors such as fantastic, bright hues of red, green, orange or more subtle shades of violet and blue. There is also the very special rebozo de aroma which is black and often used as a shroud. The name comes from the fact that the black dye has a strong unpleasant smell so the dyed cotton is later soaked in a mixture of orange leaves, rose petals, sage, rosemary and other woodsy plant materials, all of which give the rebozo a long-lasting agreeable aroma.



The rebozos are traditionally woven by men on big looms that require a large degree of strength. The process of setting up the looms for weaving is laborious and complicated and takes years of practice to get it right. The cotton for the patterned rebozos is dyed in a centuries-old process called ikat which is called resist dyeing in English. It basically means that the cotton is knotted and then tie-dyed to set up a marbled pattern. It is something that is best understood by seeing the procedure being performed first-hand. 

What sets the Mexican, and especially the Tenancingo, rebozo apart from shawls from other countries, is the very fine work of the endings, called flecos, puntas or rapacejos.

When finished, the woven rebozo is removed from the loom with a few feet of threads hanging from each end. These threads, anywhere from 1,800 to over 5,000 of them, are then imaginatively and intricately worked into knotted patterns, something like macrame. The most typical patterns are those with dolls, flowers, ducks, deer or geometric designs. Sometimes a name is worked in. The work is almost exclusively done by women, known as empuntadoras, and can take weeks or even months to do. There are only a handful left of rebozo weavers who use the ancient backstrap loom, called a telar de cintura or telar de otate. Since they can only make one rebozo at a time, versus the many that can be woven on a large loom, the work is costly and time consuming. But it also allows for more originality in patterns and you will therefore find one of a kind rebozos when woven in this way.


One such weaver is Don Isaac Ramos who lives and works in Malinalco, a 20 minute drive from Tenancingo. Now 83 years old, he has been weaving since he was 10 when he started to learn the trade from his family of weavers. He rises at 5 and works for 12 hours a day, every day of the week, to produce on average two rebozos a week. He does all the steps of the process himself from mixing the dyes and dyeing the cotton to setting up the warp with the thousands of strands to painting on the pattern to the final weaving, hours and hours of labor. Or, as he says, "mucho tiempo, poca ganancia" (so much time, so little profit), although his rebozos have a considerably higher price than the more standard ones of Tenancingo.

But it's all done with much patience and calm, as well as a huge love and devotion to his art. He works with many known patterns, all of which have names such as cacahuate, arco negro or palomitas, but he also invents many patterns which he says simply pop into his head and his fingers practically work on their own. As well, he and his daughter Camelia, who does some of the fleco work (the rest is farmed out to local empuntadoras), have access to the wonderful old rebozos owned by the Franz Mayer Museum and they study them for ideas. They are both very concerned about the disappearance of this highly skilled art and are doing what they can to interest and train other family members in keeping up the tradition.

If you would like to track down Sr. Ramos in Malinalco, he and Camelia have a small shop about 1/2 a block down from the zocalo at Guerreno. You can also watch him weave at his workshop behind the gas station at Galeana (Tel. 714-147-0383). For Spanish speakers, he has a wealth of stories to tell about the use of the rebozo. One interesting comment he made is that until quite recently the rebozo was thought of as a symbol of purity and no self-respecting woman left the house without her rebozo. And if a young man snatched a rebozo from a young woman, then the woman considered herself to belong to that man.

A good book on the subject is Rebozos de la Colección de Robert Everts, coedited by the Franz Mayer Museum and Artes de Mexico and available at many museum bookstores.

Vicky Cowal is a weekly contributor to The Herald.
© 2005 Copyright El Universal-El Universal

Adan Griego
Curator for Latin American,
Mexican American & Iberian Collections
Green Library-FLAC, Stanford University
Stanford, CA 94305-6004
(650) 723-3150 / 725-1068 (fax)


15 de febrero de 2005 en Odiel Información, de Huelva. 

Cuando fallecía alguno de los que emigraron a América en la época colonial y para solucionar el problema que significaba el tener que hacer llegar a sus familiares los bienes que poseían, se creo una formula que resultó muy satisfactoria y fue la denominada de los autos de los bienes de difuntos.

Al fallecer alguien que residía en el Nuevo Mundo, se iniciaba el expediente en el Juzgado de Indias y los bienes que poseía el finado se vendían en aquellas tierras en publica subasta, y el dinero resultante de la venta de los bienes y pertenencias del fallecido, una vez descontados los gastos ocasionados incluido los del enterramiento, se procedía a enviar el liquido resultante a la Casa de Contratación y ésta efectuaba los trámites para entregarlos a los familiares del fallecido o en su caso, a los beneficiarios del legado, si existía testamento. 

Ese era, a grandes rasgos, el sistema que se utilizó y  como muchos de los que allí fueron, dejaron sus bienes para su familia, su pueblo o su alma, pues muchos destinaban cifras importantes a misas y capellanías para su salvación eterna.

El licenciado Diego Rodríguez de Estrada era un clérigo nacido en San Juan del Puerto, en la provincia de Huelva, que falleció en México y en su deseo que el pueblo que le vió nacer progresara culturalmente, legó sus bienes para que se fundara una cátedra de gramática y se enseñara gratuitamente  a los naturales de San Juan.

Al morir el licenciado, los bienes quedaron depositados en poder del Obispo de Guatemala Don Bartolomé González Soltero. Después de los trámites reglamentarios llegaron a Sevilla en julio de 1654 procedentes de Nueva España, y tras un pleito con Hacienda, el 21 de octubre de 1680 los 894.000 maravedíes de plata pasaron a poder del Cura Párroco de San Juan y patrono de la Cátedra, Jerónimo Contreras.

En 1681 los hijos de esta villa iniciaron los estudios gratuitamente, instalándose la voluntad del difunto e impartiéndose clases de gramática, incluida la lengua latina y las cuatro reglas de aritmética. Todo ello vigilado por los sacerdotes de San Juan del Puerto, con la colaboración de los Jesuitas del Convento de Trigueros, que fue el deseo expresado por Diego Rodríguez de Quesada.  

                                                                    Custodio Rebollo

Bautismos administrados en la Iglesia parroquia de Jerez, Zac.

Siglo VII. Año de 1651
Por Leonardo de la Torre y Berúmen.

(...), nacido el 11 de junio de 1651. Hij(...) de (...) y de (...). Bautizado en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez entre el lapso del día 11 al 25 de junio de 1651. Padrinos: Diego de Abuco (sic) y Ana de Almeida, su mujer.

(...), nacido el 22 de dicho mes. Hij(...) de (...) y de (...). Bautizado en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez antes del 16 de abril de 1651. Padrinos: Diego Alonso y Ana María, su mujer. 

ANA, natural, nacida el 26 de agosto de 1651 en el rancho de Chula de Alonso de Luna, e hija de la iglesia. Bautizada en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez el 4 de septiembre de 1651. Padrinos: Diego Felipe y Leonor Gonzàlez.

ANA, natural, nacida el 28 de julio de 1651. Hija de Esteban e Isabel, sirvientes de Lope Alvarez de Navia. Bautizada en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez el 20 de agosto de 1651. Padrinos: Martín Vázquez y María, india, su mujer, sirvientes de Lope Alvarez de Navia.

CARRANZA Diego, nacido el 24 de agosto de 1651, e hijo de José Carranza y de Juana, indios de la hacienda de Lope Alvarez de Navia. Bautizado en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez el 3 de septiembre de 1651. Padrinos: Lope Alvarez de Navia.

CARRILLO DE ACUÑA Juan José, hijo de José Carrillo y de María de Acuña. Bautizado en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez el de de 1651. Padrinos: Antonio de la Cueva y Catalina de la Cueva.

CUEVA DE LA TORRE Angela DE LA, nacida el 5 de abril de 1651. Hija de don Antonio de la Cueva y de doña Catalina de la Torre. Bautizado en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez el 16 de abril de 1651. Padrinos: doña Manuela de Santa Cruz.

DOMINGO, nacido el 11 de febrero de 1651. Hijo de Francisco y de Juana, indios, criados de Francisco de Orellana. Bautizado en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez el 13 de febrero de 1651. Padrinos: Francisco Marín, indio y Ana Isabel, su mujer.

GAMBOA CID Pedro DE, nacido el 29 de enero de 1651. Hijo de Cristóbal de Gamboa y de María Cid, su mujer. Bautizado en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez el 7 de febrero de 1651. Padrinos: doña Luisa de Gamboa, hija de doña Petronila de Gamboa.

GASPAR María, nacida el 19 de febrero de 1651. Hija de Miguel Gaspar y de Catalina Magdalena, vecinos de la jurisdicción de Jerez. Bautizado en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez el 21 de febrero de 1651. Padrinos: Hernando de Castañeda y Ana de Avila, vecinos de la jurisdicción de Jerez.

GOMEZ Petrona, nacida el 20 de junio de 1651. Hija de Pedro Gòmez, mestizo y de Andrea, india, criados de Antonio de la Torre. Bautizado en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez el 2 de julio de 1651. Padrinos: Pascual de Mendoza y Magdalena, indios.

GUTIERREZ Mónica, nacida el 1º de agosto de 1651. Hija de Antón Gutiérrez y de Marìa india, criados de Lope Alvarez de Navia. Bautizada en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez el 24 de agosto de 1651. Padrinos: Gerardo de Chàvez y Marìa, india, su mujer.

HERNÁNDEZ Agustina, nacida en la jurisdicción de Jerez el 13 de febrero de 1651. Hija de Pedro Sebastián y de Catalina Hernández, indios de la jurisdicción de Jerez. Bautizado en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez el 20 de febrero de 1651. Padrinos: Domingo Miguel y Juana María, indios de la jurisdicción de Jerez.

JOSE, nació el 25 de enero de 1651. Hijo de la iglesia. Bautizado en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez el 12 de febrero de 1651. Padrinos: Diego de Bañuelos, vecino de la ciudad de Zacatecas, y Juana del Campo, doncella.

JUAN, hijo de la iglesia. Bautizado en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez el 6 de enero de 1651. Padrinos: Alonso de Luna y Ana, mestiza.

LOPEZ Agustina, india, nacida el 28 de mayo de 1651. Hija de Miguel Domingo y de Andrea López. Bautizado en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez el 25 de junio de 1651. Padrinos: Pedro Juárez e Isabel Micaela, su mujer.

MAGDALENA, nacida el 1ª de abril de 1651. Hija de Sebastián y de Petrona, indios, criados de Lope Alvarez de Navia. Bautizada en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez el de de 1651. Padrinos: Gabriel y Magdalena, indios, criados de Lope Alvarez de Navia.

MALDONADO CID Juan, nacido el 1º de julio de 1651. Hijo de Juan Maldonado y de Francisca Cid, su mujer. Bautizado en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez el 1º de agosto de 1651. Padrinos: Pedro Cid Caldera y Marìa Carrillo, su mujer.

MARCOS, nació el 28 de abril de 1651. Hijo de Melchora, india, criada de Antonio de la Torre y de Padre no conocido. Bautizado en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez el 1º de mayo de 1651. Padrinos: Mateo, mulato.

MARÍA, hija de (...) y de (...). Bautizada en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez el 24 de julio de 1651.

MARIA, nacida el 5 de agosto de 1651, e hija de Juan Felipe, indio natural y de Francisca María, india, su mujer, sirvientes de Juan Carrillo Ordóñez. Bautizada en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez el 8 de septiembre de 1651. Padrinos: Juan Miguel y María Magdalena, indios sirvientes de Juan Carrillo Ordóñez, vecino de la jurisdicción de Jerez.

MARIA, nacida el sábado 2 de septiembre de 1651, e hija de la iglesia. Bautizada en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez el 17 de septiembre de 1651. Padrinos: Juan Maldonado y Francisca Cid, su mujer.

MARTÍN Agustín, natural, nacido en el mes de agosto el día de San Agustín. Hijo de hijo de Crisanto Martín y de Ana María, su mujer, sirvientes de Lope Alvarez de Navia. Bautizado en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez el 10 de septiembre de 1651. Padrinos: Antonio Melchor y Juana Vázquez, sirvientes de Juan Carrillo.

MERCADO DE MEZA Ana DE, nacida en Jerez el 29 de enero de 1651. Hija de Sebastián de Mercado y de Margarita de Meza. Bautizado en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez el 15 de febrero de 1651. Padrinos: Alonso Jiménez Benitez y Petrona González, su nieta.

NICOLAS, indio, hijo de la iglesia nacido el 9 de septiembre de 1651 y bautizado en San Juan Tepetongo el 4 de octubre de 1651. Padrinos: Antonio de la Torre.

OROZCO DE OROZCO Pascuala DE, nacida el 10 de abril de 1651. Hija de Juan de Orozco y de María de Orozco. Bautizada en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez el 27 de abril de 1651. Padrinos: el Alférez Lázaro Ortiz, vecino del pueblo de Tlaltenango y Francisco Ortiz, hijo de Juan Ortiz de San Pedro.

PEDRO, hijo de Alonso y de Magdalena, indios, criados de Francisco de Orellana. Bautizado en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez el 5 de marzo de 1651. Padrinos: Juan Miguel y su mujer.

PEREZ DE LUNA CABRAL Juan, nacido el 3 de febrero de 1651, hijo de Ignacio Pérez de Luna y de Clara Cabral. Bautizado en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez el 21 de febrero de 1651. Padrinos: Pedro Carrillo de Avila y Juana de Santillán, su mujer.

PETRONA, nacida el 29 de junio de 1651. Hija de Francisca, india y de Padre no conocido. Bautizado en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez el 17 de julio de 1651. Padrinos: Antonio Gracian y Sebastiana de Santillán, doncella.

SEBASTIAN, nacido el 18 de enero de 1651. Hijo de Francisco Miguel y de María Isabel, india. Bautizado en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez el 29 de enero de 1651. Padrinos: Pedro Sebastián y Catalina Hernández, vecinos de la jurisdicción de Jerez.

TORRE DE RENTERIA Lorenzo DE LA, nacido el 11 de agosto de 1651 y bautizado el 3 de octubre de 1651 en la iglesia de San Juan Tepetongo, hacienda de Antonio de la Torre, de quien fue hijo y de doña Marìa de Rentería, su mujer. Padrinos: Manuel Rodríguez, escribano de Cabildo de la ciudad de Zacatecas y Público de dicha Ciudad.

TREJO CALDERA Nicolás DE, nacido el 25 de enero de 1651. Hijo de Jerónimo de Trejo y de Isabel Caldera. Bautizado en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez el 21 de febrero de 1651. Padrinos: Diego de Pinedo y Ana de Esquivel.



Luz Montejano, México

Family History Web/en México
Sent by Lilia Arteaga


Libro “Sagrada Mitra de Guadalajara Antiguo Obispado de la Nueva Galicia. Expedientes de la Serie de Matrimonios. Extractos Siglos XVII-XVIII”.  1999 (EDITADO) 

6 boletines sobre “Libros Parroquiales de la Ciudad de México. Extractos” 


  • Libro de matrimonios reservados de la Parroquia de Santa Catarina Virgen y Mártir de México (1850-1859).
  • Libro de matrimonios de españoles de la Parroquia del Señor San José y Nuestra Señora del Sagrado Corazón de Jesús (1800-1805).



  • Libro de matrimonios y otros asuntos secretos de la Parroquia de San Sebastián (1787-1858).
  • Apéndice al libro de matrimonios y otros asuntos secretos de la Parroquia de San Sebastián (1787-1852).
  • Libro de matrimonios de españoles de la Parroquia del Señor San José y Nuestra Señora del Sagrado Corazón de Jesús (1806-1810).


  • Libro primero de matrimonios de la Sagrada Mitra (incluye bautismos) (1873-1890).
  • Libro 15 de matrimonios de españoles de la Parroquia del Señor San José y Nuestra Señora del Sagrado Corazón de Jesús (1811-1813).

 NUM.  4 Feb. 1994 (EDITADO Y AGOTADO)

  • Libro segundo de matrimonios de la Sagrada Mitra (1887-1909).
  • Libro de matrimonios de españoles de la Parroquia del Señor San José y Nuestra Señora del Sagrado Corazón de Jesús (1814).

NUM. 5 Marzo 1994 (SIN EDITAR)

  • Libro primero de matrimonios secretos de la Parroquia de Santa Cruz y Soledad de Nuestra Señora de México (1837-1885).
  • Libros 15 y 17 de matrimonios de españoles de la Parroquia del Señor San José y Nuestra Señora del Sagrado Corazón de Jesús (1815-1819).

NUM. 6 Abril 1994 (SIN EDITAR)

  • Libro primero de matrimonios del Primer Batallón del Regimiento de Infantería de Nueva España (1789-1818).
  • Libro 17 de matrimonios de españoles de la Parroquia del Señor San José y Nuestra Señora del Sagrado Corazón de Jesús (1820-1822).


  • “Repertorio de Artistas en México” por Guillermo Tovar de Teresa. Tomo II G-O Grupo Financiero Bancomer 1996.
  • “Porfirio La Ambición” por Enrique Krauze y Fausto Zerón-Medina. Clío 1993.
  • “Porfirio El Derrumbe” por Enrique Krauze y Fausto Zerón-Medina. Clío 1993.
  • “EL SENADO MEXICANO. Por la razón de las leyes”  Edición del Senado de la República LIII Legislatura. Primera Edición 1987. 3 Tomos.


  • "Los Pasqueles de Veracruz: Notas Acerca de su Origen", por Alejandro Mayagoitia y Hagelstein. México 2004. p.39.

  • "José María de Anzorena y López Aguado (1742-1811). De Súbdito del Rey a Intendente y Brigadier Insurgente". Tesis de Licenciado en Historia de Eugenio Mejía Zavala, Morelia, Mich., enero de 2002. pp. 5, 45,46,225.

  • "A Yankee Smuggler on the Spanish California Coast: George Washington Eayrs and the Ship Mercury" by Robert Ryal Miller. 2001. Santa Barbara Trust for Historic Preservation, Santa Barbara, CA. p. xii.

  • "Andariegos y Pobladores Nueva España y Nueva Galicia, siglo XVI", por José Miguel Romero de Solís. El Colegio de Michoacán, Archivo Histórico del Municipio de Colima. Universidad de Colima, Conaculta-Fonca. p. XXI. Febrero 2001.

  • "Fuentes para servir a las biografías de abogados activos en la Ciudad de México durante el siglo xix: Matrimonios en la Parroquia del Sagrario Metropolitano. Segunda parte", por Alejandro Mayagoitia y Hagelstein. ARS IURIS Revista del Instituto de Documentación e Investigación Jurídicas de la Facultad de Derecho de la Universidad Panamericana. Separata 18. 1998, p. 363.

  • "Los Cortés Mudarra en la Nueva Galicia en los Siglos XVII y XVIII y Otras Familias Colaterales", por Rogerio Cortés Ramos. 1998 (Q.E.P.D). p. 4.

  • "Fuentes Manuscritas para la Historia de Iberoamérica. Guía de Instrumentos de Investigación". Suplemento por Sylvia L. Hilton e Ignacio González Casasnovas. Fundación Histórica Tavera.  Madrid, 1997. p. 111.

  • "Rancho Peguero", por Luz Montejano Hilton. Revista Club Pegueros Inc. 97. pp. 44-49.

  • "Los Retoños de Don Isidro Gutiérrez Robledo en Pegueros", por Beatrice Gutiérrez Muñoz. 1997. p.122.

  • "Abogados de algunas jurisdicciones parroquiales menores de la Ciudad de México", por Alejandro Mayagoitia. ARS IURIS Revista del Instituto de Documentación e Investigación Jurídicas de la Facultad de Derecho de la Universidad Panamericana. Separata 16. 1996, pp. 606, 624, 654,680.

  • "Guía de Fuentes Documentales Parroquiales de México", por Jorge Garibay Álvarez. Fundación Histórica Tavera y Archivo General de la Nación de México. Madrid, 1996. p. 98.

  • "Apuntes Histórico-Genealógicos: La Familia de Velasco del Valle de Soba. Dionisio José de Velasco y Gutiérrez del Valle (1795-1861) y su descendencia". Edición de Dionisio José de Velasco y Polo. México, 1994 por José Ignacio Conde y Díaz-Rubín y Javier E. Sanchiz Ruiz. p. 424.



Carlos Lopez Dzur Honored by ATENEO PEPINIANO 
Latino Baseball Players
2005 Caribbean World Series Celebrates 56 years of Latino Baseball


who writes:

Hello, Mimi:

I recently visited Puerto Rico and I was declared SOCIO HONORARIO  by the Ateneo created in San Sebastián, Puerto Rico, because of the many articles and books I have written in the history of that town and its people. I participated in several panels on Oral History and historical topics and books. The Ateneo 's publishing company (Ediciones Ateneo Pepiniano) will publish all my «Thirteen Monographies on San Sebastián del Pepino's History», begining with «Comevacas y Tiznaos: Las Partidas Sediciosas en Pepino de 1898», almost a 200-pages book.

I am including the URLs of the ATENEO PEPINIANO webpages that I am creating for them:

Santa Ana, CA

[[ Editor's comment: Carlos is a poet, scholar, historian, writer, and newspaper editor for Mini-Ondas in Santa Ana, California.  He is an intellectual of note, who has been recognized by numerous Spanish language historical organizations out of the continental U.S. .  He is deserving of every accolade.  Warmest regards and admiration.]] 




Qué es el Ateneo Pepiniano

Es una comunidad de intereses educativos, cívicos y culturales, fundada el sábado, 11 de septiembre de 2004, que reúne en armonía de propósito a investigadores, estudiosos, escritores, artistas, artesanos y público en general de la cultura pepiniana y puertorriqueña.

Cuál es su meta

Reconstruir la historia de San Sebastián del Pepino desde las ciencias, las letras y las artes, fomentar los valores trascendentes que mantienen la legitimidad y la moralidad, las creencias y las actitudes de nuestra filosofía de vida, mejor conocida como pepinianidad, perpetuar nuestro legado de etnia cultural, crear un proyecto de pueblo visionario y práctico a fin de desempeñarnos con mejor eficacia y propiedad en la sociedad pepiniana en beneficio de la nación puertorriqueña;

Cómo se fundó

La fundación de una institución cultural de esta naturaleza ha sido, a lo largo de las décadas, la aspiración de muchos pepinianos. Por alguna razón no se ha podido cuajar en su totalidad un proyecto de esta ídole aunque El Pepino no ha carecido de instituciones culturales ni de líderes que lleven adelante la divulgación de su cultura.

Nosotros, después de considerar con seriedad la historia y los logros de los diversos proyectos culturales que han desarrollado con mucho esfuerzo y entrega algunos pepinianos y después de dialogar con algunos de sus protagonistas, encontramos un espacio para aportar de forma académica al enriquecimiento de la cultura pepiniana. Ahora era cuestión de encontrar un instrumento institucional cultural para descargar nuestras inquietudes y visiones culturales.

En un comienzo investigamos y presentamos en un ensayo titulado La Necesidad de una Academia de Historia en El Pepino, la institución de la academia de historia como el vehículo cultural adecuado para descargar nuestras inquietudes culturales. Tuvimos varias reuniones de aseosoramiento con el Presidente de la Academia Puertorriqueña de Historia, Dr. Luis González Vales Los compañeros que asistieron a las primeras reuniones nos abrieron los ojos indicándonos que aunque la Academia tenía un gran valor, necesitábamos un instrumento más amplio y menos riguroso que fuera más allá de inquietudes históricas ya que la mayoría de los compañeros que respondieron a la convocatoria cultivaban otros géneros.

De regreso a nuesro rol investigativo, analizamos la institución del ateneo y presentamos un ensayo titulado De la Academia al Ateneo. Correspondió a nuestras inquietudes el Presidente del Ateneo Puertorriqueño, Lic. Eduardo Morales Coll cuando tuvimos la oportunidad de charlar de forma amena sobre nuestro proyecto. Nos ofreció la diestra de compañerismo y puso al Ateneo Puertorriqueño y su persona a nuestra disposición.

La atinada urgencia del Dr. Ramón Cervera, expresidente de la Universidad O y M de la República Dominicana y del poeta pepiniano Ramón Estrada Vega nos animaron para darle fundación al Ateneo Pepiniano el 11 de septiembre de 2004 mediante la aprobación y firma a su Carta Constitutiva de siete socios.

Qué es la Carta Constitutiva: s el documento que recoge por escrito el acto de la fundación del Ateneo Pepiniano, sus objetivos y sus signatarios.


NOSOTROS, a fin de reunir y mantener reunidos en armonía y con entusiasmo a todos los investigadores, estudiosos, escritores y artistas pepinianos con el propósito de reconstruir la historia de San Sebastián del Pepino desde las ciencias, las letras y las artes, de fomentar los valores trascendentes, las creencias y las actitudes de nuestra filosofía de vida, mejor conocida como pepinianidad, de perpetuar nuestro legado de etnia cultural, de crear un proyecto de pueblo visionario y práctico y de desempeñarnos con mejor eficacia y propiedad en la sociedad pepiniana en beneficio de la nación puertorriqueña;

NOSOTROS, con un alto sentido de pertenencia y de solidaridad por nuestro pueblo, San Sebastián del Pepino, a fin de colaborar con nuestro tiempo, nuestros talentos y bienes materiales creamos esta comunidad de intereses educativos y culturales con personalidad jurídica propia, autónoma, con el nombre de Ateneo de Pepiniano cuya Carta Constitutiva aprobamos hoy, adhiriéndonos a la normativa general del campo de las ciencias, las letras y las artes para la consecución de los siguientes objetivos:

a. Fomentar, divulgar y perpetuar los valores de la pepinianidad y la puertorriqueñidad
b. fomentar la reconstrucción y la divulgación de la Historia de San Sebastián del Pepino y la de Puerto Rico
c. fomentar la investigación académica de las ciencias, las letras y las artes local, nacional e internacionalmente
d. crear secciones académicas que respondan a los intereses de investigación, estudio, publicación y divulgación de los socios
e. crear una biblioteca y un centro de investigación para promover los propósitos de la institución
f. fomentar las publicaciones de los escritores y artistas pepinianos en las ciencias, las letras y las artes
g. hacer las cátedras del Ateneo disponibles a toda la comunidad pepiniana y puertorriqueña
h. ser una institución colaboradora en asuntos culturales en San Sebastián del Pepino
i. ser un foro de continua discusión de los asuntos locales, nacionales e internacionales

Constituida hoy sábado, 11 de septiembre de 2004, en el Recinto de San Sebastián del EDP College, por los siguientes socios fundadores:

Latino Baseball Players
Sent by webmistress Jessica

Americas? most desired time entertaining activity baseball is indeed Latin Americas? preferred sport as well. Latinos have made great contributions to the sport of baseball since their commencement. The Latino players who played in the major leagues climbed the stairs of success and with their exquisite brilliance have virtually dominated every aspect of the game. These talented Latinos with their plenty of skills ruled the All-Star game that took place in Turner Field. Six Latinos started the game and one-third of all the players belonged to a Latin American country. 

Three to four decades back baseball didn't approve the Latino players. As a matter of fact the Latino baseball players were the victim of similar negative perceptions and discrimination that many of the early black players had to undergo and triumph over. For instance, the Yankees gave up their superstar Vic Power, a Puerto Rican due to his dark complexion and was rumored to date White women. In 1954, the Yankees traded him to the Philadelphia Athletics. With his new club, he became a constant All-Star. Following the decade of 50s the budding of Latino baseball players increased significantly. Currently, 30% of Latino players form the dominant force in the Major Leagues. 

The contemporary Latino megastars like Juan Gonzalez, Sammy Sosa, Bernie Williams, Vinny Castillo, Ivan Rodriguez, Pedro Martinez, Orlando "El Duque" Hernandez and many others with their will and determination have proved that they are no more less than any other player. This brilliant constellation of stars, in their full swing has become the most wanted of their respective teams and admirers. Sammy Sosa has become the preeminent player of the Chicago Cubs?. Alex Rodrfguez in the uniform of Texas Rangers has invigorated every slugger that belongs to him. These two Dominicans have proved that they lead the pack of Latino players followed by the Puerto Ricans, Cubans, Venezuelans, Mexicans and Colombians. 

Following Sammy and Alex leading the top-10 list for most home runs are Cubans Rafael Palmeiro of Texas and Arizonas? Luis Gonzalez. In the Chicago White Sox club, Venezuelan Magglio Ordonez is a forceful player who has assisted the team to mark victories in various playoffs. The same has been contributed by Edgardo Allfonzo of the New York Mets for his club. The other two sensational Dominicans are Vladimir Guerrero of Montreal Expos and Alfonso Soriano of New York Yankees. They are the leading stars of American League who have delivered incredible ranks from time to time. Dominican Luis Castillo of Florida Marlins and Colombian shortstop Edgar Renterfa of St. Louis Cardinals are the most talented Latino guys. Arizona Diamondbacks first baseman Erubiel Durazo proved to be the finest Mexican hitter after leading his club in the 2001 World Series by scoring a home run. The pitching king Pedro Martinez, a Dominican by origin possesses exceptionally good throwing skills. 

2005 Caribbean World Series Celebrates 56 years of Latino Baseball

For Latinos living in the Caribbean Basin, Baseball is, truly, their preferred sport. This year, this passion for baseball will be celebrated at the 2005 Caribbean World Series, to be played in Mexico during the first week in February.

The Series travels to beautiful Mazatlán and--from February 1st to the 6th--the atmosphere of Caribbean Baseball will permeate the folklore in what promises to be one of the most exciting Series in a long time.

Teams from the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Venezuela and México will meet in a swift and exciting 12 game round robin series that will decide the new Caribbean World Series Champion.

The Dominican Republic is eager to defend the title it earned in 2003 with Las Aguilas Cibaeñas and in 2004 with Licey. While the teams from Puerto Rico, México and Venezuela, as well as their fans, desperately want to get back into the winning ways.

The Caribbean Baseball Series represents the true spirit of baseball. 

An affair that began in 1949, with teams from Cuba, Puerto Rico, Panamá and Venezuela, it quickly gained recognition as the showcase of Latino Baseball talent in the Caribbean. With a series of exciting events that brought together the best players available in baseballs romantic era, The Caribbean World Series quickly gained notoriety and was recognized by the quality of its players and its performance.

The First Series noted the showmanship of The Almendares team, representing Cuba. That team included Major League Baseball All-Stars Minnie Miñoso and Tony Taylor on their roster. Subsequently, players such as Willie Mays, Willard Brown, Satchel Page, Luis Aparicio, Vic Davalillo, Orlando Cepeda, Roberto Clemente, and many others grazed the shirts of many of the teams in the tournament, bringing victories and more excitement and tradition to The Caribbean World Series.

After the political changes in Cuba in 1960 The Caribbean World Series took a hiatus, but it returned in 1981 and since then it has become a yearly event.

The CWS will be broadcast in the U.S. on Fox Sports en Espanol and on Radio in New York (1280AM), Tampa (1300AM), Boston (890AM), Miami (1210AM) and in Los Angeles (930AM). 

You can visit for historical information, data and photos that include a gallery dating back to the earliest days of baseball in the Caribbean. 



Real Archivo de Indias
Cervantes website
 De la Garza de Lepe
The Spanish Theatre to 1700


First page of the Indias (America) Royal Archives, that was
dedicated to the Marquis of the Sonora, who was the uncle of Bernardo de Galvez.

Sent by
Mario Robles del Moral

Recommended by Mario is this excellent site for researching, improving Spanish language skills, historical insight, literary pursuits, and current happenings:
Each of these titles below link to a website with links to other resources, a bevy of information.


Actos culturales
  Nombres propios
  El jardín andalusí
  Ratón Pérez
  Pintar palabras
  Cien años de ilustración
  Los Borja
  de la semejanza
  Museo Virtual 
  de Arte Publicitario
  El arte de la fotografía
  Ciudades Patrimonio
  Mezquita de Córdoba
  El Salón de Reinos
  Paisajes de España
  Camino de Santiago
  Museo del Prado
  Museo Naval
  Claustros y retablos
  Patrimonio Nacional
  Conciencia retratada

futuro  y comunicación
  La formación virtual
  El conjuro de los libros
  a la traducción
  Voces y letras hispánicas
  Archivos Estatales

Aula de lengua
  Mi mundo en palabras
  Historias de debajo
  de la luna
  Lecturas paso a paso
  El atril del traductor
  Al habla
  Pasatiempos de Rayuela
  Otros materiales
  Cursos de español
  Formación  de profesores

Obras de referencia
  El Quijote en América
  Actas de la AIH
  Don Quijote de la Mancha
  Las sátiras de Quevedo
  Coloquio de París
  Biblioteca del profesor
  El español en el mundo
  El español en EE. UU.
  Congresos de la
  Lengua Española
  Fortuna de España
  Clásicos hispánicos
  Atlas ambiental
  del  Mediterráneo
  Calderón y la cultura




Publicado en Odiel Información, de Huelva
En su edición del 23 de febrero de 2005


La labor de investigación histórica es lenta,  a veces penosa e irritante, pero en muchos casos es gratificante. Aún cuando nuestros antepasados nos dejaron libros describiendo lo que fue y supuso nuestro encuentro con América, no hay duda que lo que mas información nos ha ofrecido, son los denominados expedientes de bienes de difuntos.

Estos expedientes nos sirven para estudiar quienes eran, los que fueron y los que encontraron, a que estrato social pertenecían, cuales eran sus pertenencias e incluso sus hábitos de vida.

Generalmente la gente de mar eran o bien aventureros que acudían a América con la ilusión de conseguir fortuna rápida o bien eran personas que no podían mantener a su familia y se enrolaban en las tripulaciones de las naves en los mas bajos oficios con el fin de poder pagar el viaje y una vez allí intentar abrirse camino basado en sus conocimientos o habilidades para en principio vivir y ver la forma de llegar a fin propuesto. En muchos casos lograron ayudar o traer a su familia al Nuevo Mundo, en otros volvieron de nuevo a Castilla aunque a veces la muerte les sorprendió en tierra o en la travesía. Tal es el caso de Mateo Alemán, de Lepe, que falleció en Nicaragua en 1574, o Miguel Fernández, de Moguer que en 1584 murió en Veracruz.

Durante el viaje, tanto el ida como el de vuelta, se producían muchos fallecimientos, bien por causas naturales por enfermedades contraídas durante el trayecto o por los golpes del mar que se enfurecía en algunos momentos y hacían bailar a aquellas “cáscaras de nuez”. Otro enemigo muy importante de estos barcos eran los ataques de los corsarios que protegidos por otras coronas reinantes, abordaban nuestros barcos para obtener botín.

Entre los hundimientos por los ataques piratas y el mucho trafico que existía en ambas direcciones, el problema era la falta de barcos adecuados para hacer frente a las misiones a las que eran destinados, ya que existía una picaresca falsificando datos de las características del navío. Tal es el caso del general Manuel de Velasco, al que le asignaron el navío “Jesús, Maria y José”, según el certificado de 600 toneladas y que se denunció porque no era apto para llevar los armamentos necesarios para su defensa ya que tenía 500.

                                                            Custodio Rebollo.

De la Garza de Lepe

Todo empezó por un articulo publicado en Odiel Información, que fue reproducido en la revista en Internet “Somos Primos”. El articulo trataba sobre el fundador de Laredo, el Capitán Tomas Sánchez de la Barreda y Garza, que era descendiente de José Sánchez Ortega, nacido en Lepe en 1603.

Cuando se reprodujo este articulo en la revista de los Estados Unidos, empezaron a llegarme cartas de personas que tenían el apellido “De la Garza” en los mas diferentes lugares, Tamaulipas, México, Florida, California, Nevada y otros muchos que ahora no recuerdo,  pidiéndome si podría averiguar algo y si se conservaba algún documento sobre Marcos Alonso y su esposa Constanza de la Garza, que habían nacido en Lepe, sobre 1525.

A raíz de esto fui escribiendo una serie de artículos en las que detallaba lo que iba averiguando y puse en contacto a personas que llevaban el mismo apellido y que deseaban conocer algún dato complementario para completar su árbol genealógico.

Intenté averiguar los documentos que había en el archivo  civil y, lamentablemente, no encontré nada, ya que al parecer había sido expoliado por alguien durante la desamortización de Mendizábal en el siglo XIX. Ya lo único que me quedaba era el Archivo Parroquial y prometí visitarlo, esperando conseguir lo que quería.

Hace unos días fui a Lepe y me entrevisté con el Padre Feliciano, Párroco de Lepe, que me dio toda clase de facilidades para el buen fin de mi objetivo pero, por desgracia, con los datos que poseo no se ha conseguido nada, ya que de algunos libros de ésa época, solo se conservan hojas sueltas y de otros no se conserva nada, porque fueron destruidos durante la Guerra Civil. No obstante no me doy por vencido y con los nuevos datos que obtenga procuraré hacer una revisión exhaustiva para ver de llegar a la meta propuesta, que cada vez está mas difícil. 

De todas formas, este asunto me ha proporcionado una serie de contactos y muchos ya son amigos, con los que mantengo una correspondencia electrónica frecuente, incluso tratando los mas diversos temas.

Y lo mas curioso, es que averigüé que el noveno apellido de mi esposa es “De la Garza”.

                                                                           Custodio Rebollo


VII. The Spanish Theatre to 1700

During the 16th & 17th centuries the Spanish theatre flourished--with religion as its primary source. During the 16th century, Spain held a religious festival three times annually called the Corpus Christie festival which emphasized the power of the Church. At the festival, they performed plays called autos sacramentales.The autos sacramentales had some of the aspects of morality plays as well as some aspects of cycle plays, and they featured human as well as supernatural characters. The plays that were presented, sometimes old plays and sometimes new, were performed by a single company and later by two companies. The plays were presented on carros, or wagons, which held everything needed for performance.

By 1500 secular dramas had begun to emerge. One of the most important early works was The Comedy of Calisto and Melibea which first consisted of sixteen acts, and later was increased to twenty-one acts. Although written by many men, the work is attributed to Fernando de Rojas.

A man who is often referred to as the founder of Spanish drama is Juan del Encina. His first works were religious, but later he also wrote secular plays. The most noted of these is The Ecologue of Placida and Victoriano.

Professional theatre in Spain began around 1550 led by Lope de Rueda, who was an actor and author. He was first noticed in religious plays, but later he wrote plays for popular audiences. A few of his works include The Frauds, Medore, Aumelina, and Eufemia. Rueda normally played fools or simpletons, but his characters were the most fully developed of the time. He is considered the father of the Spanish professional theatre and also was the most successful performer of his day.

Theatre popularity was on the rise in the 1570s, and Madrid and Seville were the theatrical centers, though other cities had acting troupes. The playwrights/dramatists which also were popular at the time were Juan de la Cueva and Miguel de Cervantes. Cueva was the first playwright to use Spanish history in his play, The Seven Children of Lara. Cuevantes also wrote of everyday life, as well as of classical subjects. Cervantes is best known for his novel Don Quixote, but he also wrote about thirty plays during his career. The Siege of Nurmanas, The Traffic of Argel, and The Fortunate Ruffian are a few of Cervantes' surviving dramatic works.

In Spain, Comedia was the word used to describe any full-length play, whether it was serious or comic. Most Comedias were divided into three acts and began with a loa, or prologue. The most well-known Spanish playwright is Lope Felix de Voga Carpio. Vega is believed to have written 800 comedies, 450 of which survived. His plays have clearly defined actions which keep the audience interested, and most of his plays deal with the theme of love and honor. Vega's plays almost always had happy endings. Fuante Ovgriva ( The Shape Well), The Gardener's Dog, and Madrid Steal are just a few of Voga's numerous works.

Pedro Calderon de la Barca is another well-known Spanish playwright known for plays such as The Phantom Lady, The Physicians to His Own Honor, and Life is a Dream. Calderon wrote 200 plays, but only 100 have survived to the present day.

Public theatres in Spain were known as corrales. The first corrales was built in Madrid and was called the Corral de la Cruz. A few public theatres were also built in these cities. Performances began at 2:00 p.m. in the fall and 4:00 p.m. in spring and were required to end at least one hour before nightfall.

Web Designer/Instructor
Central Washington University


Me han publicado mi último libro de ensayos en Internet en la editorial Letralia, su título es "Hablemos..." y se puede leer por capítulos o bajárselo entero, de forma completamente gratuita y sin registrarse en:

Me agradaría que contribuyera a una mayor difusión de la obra, en su entorno personal e institucional, por el interés que pueda despertar la exposición de diversas reflexiones sobre los grandes temas de siempre, desde la filosofía y el hombre hasta la mismísima existencia de Dios, pasando por el lenguaje, la experiencia, la libertad, la razón, la ciencia, la moral, el bien y el mal, entre otros.

No me mueve más interés que hacer llegar estas saludables ideas a quienes puedan sacar un honesto provecho de ellas.  La página de la revista donde se habla de la obra es:

Un saludo cordial.

Dr. Octavio Santana Suárez

Catedrático de Universidad
Departamento de Informática y Sistemas
Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria
Tel.: (+34) 928458730
Fax: (+34) 928458711



Dr. Manuel  Patarroyo
Premio Juniper Serra 
The Law
A Professor in El Salvador 

Dr. Manuel  Patarroyo, medical biochemist from Colombia

    (Thank you to Angel Custodio Rebollo that gave me the clue for searching Dr. Patarroyo.)

In 1987, Dr. Manuel Elkin Patarroyo developed the world's first synthetic vaccine, the first vaccine against a parasite and the first vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum (the most common and deadly malaria parasite). Still under development, the vaccine has not yet proven to reduce deaths in Africa. In 1992, Dr. Patarroyo donated the vaccine to the World Health Organization.

Ironically, it took him only 4 years to make his discovery, but 6 years to convince the world that the vaccine worked. Dr. Patarroyo assigned the patent to the World Health Organisation so he wouldn't profit from it personally. His goal is that his vaccine be accessible to all affected regardless of economical background. Tests have shown the vaccine to be between 30 and 60 percent effective, and so could save over 100 million lives a year (300 million people die from malaria every year).

The scientific world has now bestowed over 50 awards on Patarroyo. But Patarroyo has refused offers from drug companies of up to $68 million for the vaccine rights, choosing instead to donate them to the WHO (World Health Organization).

He proved an outstanding student and was plucked from medical school in Bogota by the Rockefeller Foundation and sent to Yale. He gained his PhD at Rockefeller university - with two Nobel prizewinners, Bruce Merryfield, who won the chemistry, prize and Harry Kunkel for medicine, both in 1984. He returned to Bogota in that year and set up the institute attached to the medical school and hospital. He now employs 180 people on research round the clock, most on 8am to 8pm shift. "There are lots of good scientists in the developing world working hard to solve the problems of mankind."

"It is not my project in life to become a millionaire, or to be powerful or famous, but really to solve what I want to solve. That is my life project, my life purpose," he declared.


March 8, 2005  
Dr. Manuel Elkin Patarroyo 
will be receiving the

(Mario Robles del Moral explains that the award is like a university prize.  Junipero Serra was born in the Balears Island. )

La Fundació Càtedra Iberoamericana  a la Universitat de les Illes Balears  comunica la concesión del premio Juníper Serra 2005 al Dr. Manuel Elkin Patarroyo por su brillante trayectoria científica en el campo de las vacunas sintéticas y por su actuación social al ceder los derechos de la explotación de la misma a la OMS.

En la página web de la FCI pueden hallar una abundante información sobre la actividad profesional, personal y social del Dr. Patarroyo. El acto de entrega del premio se celebrará el próximo día 8 de marzo, martes, a las 19.30h (hora española), al que quedan invitados. Dicho acto se trasmitirá vía Internet desde la página web de la FCI.

Ante la relevancia del premiado invitamos a los miembros de la Comunidad Iberoamericana de Países que quieran adherirse al acto de homenaje al Dr. Patarroyo lo hagan a través de la  página web, haciendo clic en el apartado Felicitación. Desde allí  le pueden enviar su mensaje.

La FCI se siente honrada por la aceptación del premio por parte del Dr. Patarroyo




The Law:
In updating its marriage code of 1884, Chile became the last country in the Americas to legalize divorce.  Malta and the Philippines are the only nations that forbid divorce. 1/10/05 OC Register

A Professor in El Salvador by Jaime Cader

Jaime a frequent submitter serves as commissioner with the Contra Costa County Human Relations Commission in California.  He writes: In this commission we also deal with cultural/ethnic issues.
We are an advisory board to the County Board of Supervisors.  Before I was the only Hispanic on that commission, we now have two others -Dolores DeBaca and Malia Everette.

After this introduction, there will be some biographical information written in Spanish by my
Uncle Rafael in El Salvador.  It has been over twenty years since I have visited my family in that country,
however I also saw my uncle when he was studying in the United States and in recent years when he has come on visits to California. 

My Uncle Rafael is married to my maternal Aunt Miriam, who like myself is a descendant of Dr. Manuel Gallardo whom I wrote an article about for the March 2004 issue of Somos Primos.  I once accompanied my Uncle Rafael on a trip to Switzerland as he was attending an international seminar on agriculture in that country. That was almost 30 years ago and that was my first trip to Europe.  It was also through my uncle that I was exposed to the ideas of the East Indian philosopher Jiddu Krishnamurti.

My Uncle Rafael's complete name is Rafael Granados Vasquez.  He and my Aunt Miriam have two grown sons, one living in New Brunswick, Canada, and the other one living with them in El Salvador.

The following is what my uncle wrote about himself. Please view his photographs on his website.  Most of them were taken in El Salvador:

Rafael Granados Vásquez nació el 26 de junio de 1936 en la ciudad de San Salvador, República de El Salvador en América Central.

Hizo estudios universitarios en la Universidad de El Salvador, graduándose de ingeniero agrónomo en 1965. Posteriormente cursó estudios de postgrado en Economía Agrícola en la Universidad de Maryland, Maryland, EUA, de 1970 a 1972.

Ha trabajado en la Agencia para el Desarrollo Internacional del gobierno de los EUA (USAID), y como profesor en la Universidad de El Salvador; ha laborado en varios aspectos de agricultura, reforestacion, energia solar, desarrollo rural. En casi todos los puestos de trabajo, ha tomado diversas fotografias para ilustración de sus proyectos.

Hace unos seis años inició sus actividades en forma mas regular en el campo de la fotografía digital,
empleando la camara digital “hp photosmart 315”, a la vez que se introducía al aprendizaje y práctica del programa “Photoshop” para la restauración y mejora de fotografías.

En fotografía su inclinación han sido principalmente hacia las flores y las personas en sus ambientes
naturales. Recientemente, Rafael Granados V. decidió compartir algunas de sus fotografias mediante la colocación en internet de un sitio web titulado:
“Fotografías: Primer Album".

Este primer album contiene 124 fotografías, expuestas en doce temas, en donde se pueden apreciar flores, playas, personas, paisajes y otros. Una de las fotografías preferidas del autor, se muestra al final del tema “Varios”, que es una imagen familiar de hace muchos años, en donde aparece el autor con sus dos hijos. En este sitio web se indica la dirección del correo electrónico del autor para enviar comentarios o sugerencias.

El autor también ha entrado al campo de la tecnología de la información en internet, y como fruto de esta labor, ha recopilado lo que considera las mejores páginas web en los diferentes campos de las actividades humanas. Esta colección de sitios interesantes, la mayoría en idioma inglés, puede ser vista en la siguiente dirección:

Finalmente, el autor desea expresar su gratitud a las personas que hacen posible, la divulgación de su primera selección de fotografías.




 Search historic cities maps by city name .  .   and by year  
The Omission From the New W.W.II Memorial 
Book Review: How the Idea of Religious Toleration Came to the West


  Search historic cities maps by city name .  .   and by year
Sent by Johanna De Soto

The Omission From the New W.W.II Memorial 
Sent by: Elias J. Carrillo

The Omission From the New W.W.II Memorial 

Today I went to visit the new World War II Memorial in Washington, DC. I got an unexpected history lesson. Since I'm a baby boomer, I was one of the youngest in the crowd. Most were the age of my parents, veterans of "the greatest war" with their families. It was a beautiful day, and people were smiling and happy to be there. Hundreds of us milled around the memorial, reading the inspiring words of Ike and Truman that are engraved there. 

On the Pacific side of the memorial, a group of us gathered to read the words President Roosevelt used to announce the attack on Pearl Harbor: "Yesterday, December 7, 1941-- a date which will live in infamy--the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked." 

One woman read the words aloud: 

" With confidence in our armed forces, with the un bounding determination of our people, we will gain the inevitable triumph." 

But as she read, she was suddenly angry. "Wait a minute," she said. 

"They left out the end of the quote. They left out the most important part. Roosevelt said: "so help us God." 

"You're probably right," her husband said. "We're not supposed to say things like that now." 

"I know I'm right," she insisted. "I remember the speech" The two shook their heads sadly and walked away. 

Listening to their conversation, I thought to myself, "Well, it has been 50 years. She's probably forgotten." 

But she was right 

I went home and pulled out the book my book club is reading. It's "Flags of Our Fathers" by James Bradley. It's all about Iwo Jima. I haven't gotten too far in the book. It's tough to read because it's a graphic description of the battles in the Pacific. 

But right there it was on page 58. Roosevelt's speech to the nation It ends "so help us God." 

The people who edited out that part of the speech when they engraved it on the memorial could have fooled me. I was born after the war. But they couldn't fool the people who were there. Roosevelt's words are engraved on their hearts. 


Send this around to your friends. People need to know before everyone forgets. People today are trying to change the history of America by leaving God out of it, but the truth is, God has been a part of this nation, since the beginning. He still wants to be... 

My Father was in the South Pacific with the 38th (Cyclone) Division, trying to "crack the Japanese Shimbo Line east of Manilla", Maj. Fen. William C. Chase, Commander 38th Division. 

Book Review: How the Idea of Religious Toleration Came to the West

Author: Perez Zagorin
Princeton University Press, 2003 Peres Zagorin writes of the 16th century as "probably the most intolerant period in Christian history." In that century thousands of people were executed as heretics. One of them was Michael Servetus, burned alive in 1553 on order from John Calvin and city authorities for having delved into theological speculations that deviated from what Calvin was certain  was the truth. The trial and execution of Servetus, writes Zagorin, provoked a great controversy concerning religious toleration. It was a religious debate championed by  Sebastian Castellio, a relatively unknown who in 1554 wrote a small book, Concerning Heretics -- anonymously and with false names for the printer and the place of publication. 

John Calvin's righteousness inclined him toward intense condemnation. He called the author of Concerning Heretics "that dog," "monster," the worst plague of our time" and "the chosen instrument of Satan." And Calvin was not a careful thinker: he falsely accused Castellio of endorsing all of Servetus' teachings.  Calvin's successor at Geneva, Theodore Beza, continued the attacks on Castellio, drawing from the Bible and Christian history. According to Zagorin, Beza described heretics as those "who, despite admonition, obstinately resisted the truth and disrupted the peace and unity of the church with their false teaching." It is the church, observed Beza, that decides what is heresy, not the city magistrate who carries out the church's wishes to execute. The magistrate's duty, claimed Beza, was to protect civil society, and he added that the only difference between heresy and other crimes was that heresy was far more heinous. Castellio argued that heresy was no more than a religious disagreement. A heretic, claimed Castellio, is not someone whom we can say for certain is guilty of error, and we should not silence argument by destroying books or people, making it impossible to know their beliefs and what they have to say in their own defense." Castellio drew from his own Christianity. He advocated charity. Those who think themselves wiser should be more merciful, he claimed, and unity and peace would be better served if there was more charity and forbearance. 

Those who think themselves wiser, Castellio claimed, should teach by example rather than punish by execution. Killing Servetus, claimed Castellio, was not defending a doctrine.    There were others before Castellio opposed to the killing of heretics, and the best known of them was Erasmus (1469? - 1536), who had had an influence on Castellio. A devout Catholic, Erasmus proposed that it was in the interest of the Church to tolerate different points of view and that such toleration might produce truth. In other words, Erasmus believed in progress regarding ideas. He believed that heresy should be combated only with spiritual weapons so long as no crime was involved against civil peace and secular authority.What Erasmus and Castellio were up against was the notion of the Catholic Church and then the Protestants that they were the sole custodian of religious truth. But it was not just church authority that favored combating heresy. Zagorin suggests that from the 1200s into the 1600s it was supported by public opinion -- perhaps a necessary ingredient for its occurrence.  

The concept of heresy and coercion in religion had been supported by the foremost intellectual for both Catholics and Protestants, Bishop Augustine of Hippo. But Augustine had not advocated killing heretics. And before the 11th century, writes Zagorin, heresy was not punished by death. The first execution for heresy writes Zagorin, "is said to have occurred at Orleans in 1022" at the order of the French king, Robert the Pious. In 1034 heretics were burned to death in Italy, in the diocese of Milan, and the Holy Roman Emperor Henry III, in 1051 executed heretics. And, writes Zagorin, "we hear of heretics being killed by mobs." In France, he continues, "the burning of heretics became universal during the thirteenth century and was made part of Louis IX's legislation in 1270. And in 1401 England's parliament instituted death by fire for heresy. 

Fast forwarding to the 16th century, an exception to Catholicism's general intolerance, writes Zagorin, was in Poland, where the growth of Lutheranism and Calvinism among the nobility led several Polish kings to support coexistence between Catholics and Protestants -- in the interest no doubt of the peace and stability that kings usually want within their realm. It was a policy that encouraged Protestants to seek refuge and a home in Poland. 

Toleration was advanced in the Netherlands in the 1600s for the purpose of unity in a struggle against the rule of the Hapsburg Spanish emperor, Philip II -- an advocacy that failed, writes Zagorin, "owing largely to the intolerance of the Calvinists. During the conflict with the Habsburgs, Calvinists gained control among the Dutch, and they suppressed Catholic worship, killed or expelled Catholic clergy and took over Catholic churches while demanding freedom for themselves.

But after the Dutch won their independence from Habsburg rule their society became known as the most tolerant and pluralistic. Calvinist leaders combined state and church but moderated their position regarding rival theology and strove to avoid discord within their society, deciding it would be best that people of rival faiths live in peace. Civil accord also suited business interests. The Dutch were growing commercially, their society having become more wealthy and bourgeois -- the bourgeoisie preferring order above everything but income. It was another instance of change inspired not so much by people reading the ancient Greeks but by the social dynamics of the times -- not unlike Hegel's thesis, antithesis and synthesis. 

Tolerance came a little later to England. Into the 1640s intolerance was a problem among the English, not to be resolved until the end of the century. England's Puritans were Calvinists, as were the Presbyterians and those who broke away from the Presbyterians -- the Congregationalists, or Independents, who held that each congregation had the right to govern itself.  And there were other breakaway groups, such as the Quakers and Baptists, all at odds with the Church of England. Among men of faith in England was Roger Williams, who in 1644 published what Zagorin describes as "...not only the most sweeping indictment of religious persecution thus far written by an Englishmen, but one of the most comprehensive justifications of religious liberty to appear during the seventeenth century." Williams was to found the colony of Rhode Island and to have an impact on the creation of liberty in the United States, where intolerance by Puritans was manifest.

Zagorin writes pages on the early writings on toleration by a son of Calvinists, England's John Locke (1632-1704), and he writes pages on the French thinker, Pierre Bayle 1647-1706)  Late in their lives, according to Zagorin, ... the fires of religious passions were slowly dying down in Europe and the last age of faith in Western civilization springing from the Protestant Reformation was gradually expiring. Rationalist, deist, empiricist, and skeptical trends were making steady inroads in philosophy and theology and, together with the beginnings of the historical criticism of the Bible, were undermining orthodox religion and fostering free thought, indifference, and unbelief. These developments, whose growing effects were felt chiefly among members of the educated upper classes, intellectuals and men of letters, marked the inaugural state of the Enlightenment in Europe, an era that proclaimed the autonomy and supremacy of human reason. 



Spanish Records Extraction
Vitalsearch Month In Review
Hispanic Roots 
DNA Case Study Question
Google Tunes into TV


Spanish Record Extraction - An Instructional Guide
©1981 by Corporation of the President of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 
All rights reserved. Used with permission. These files are available in PDF format.

Chapter One: Old Spanish Records - Introduction

Chapter Two: Christening, Marriage and Other Entries
Section One -
Christening Entries
Sections Two -
Marriage Entries
Section Three -
Other Entries

Chapter Three: Spanish Handwriting and Spelling
Section One -
Easily Confused Letters
Sections Two -
Elements of Spanish Handwriting Style
Section Three -
Variations in Word Spelling

Chapter Four: Name Identification
Section One: 
Identifying Names
Section Two -
Deciphering Personal Names
Section Three -
Distinguishing between Given Names and Surnames

Chapter Five: Gender

Chapter Six: Dates
Section One -
Months, Days, Years
Section Two -
Variations in Dates

Chapter Seven: Putting It All Into Practice
Section One
Section Two
Section Three
Section Four
Section Five
Section Six: Answers

Section One -
Spanish and Latin Terms
Section Two -
Christening and Marriage Entry Phrases

Appendix A -
Common Surnames
Appendix A -
Given Names
Appendix B -
Common Abbreviations
Appendix C -
Common Occupations
Appendix D -
Racial Designations
Appendix E -
Titles and Descriptive Terms

Vitalsearch Month In Review - January 2005  

Database completions and developments:
Los Angeles, Co. California 1916-1919 brides released. View at  . 
Oregon State husband-indexed divorces released and can be viewed my Members at: 
Work has resumed in rescanning the 1905-29 & 1930-39 CA Deaths from the original source documents. 

Hispanic Roots

The site isn't just about advertising my genealogical research services. The homepage will have a different published article and research tips (changed every month) that will hopefully help others discover their family origins.  There is also a page that contains useful links that I have found very 
useful.  The useful links are categorized by topic, and have helped me tremendously in my research.

Thanks, Lynn C Turner  
1799 North 950 West Apt.12 ~ Provo, UT 84604
Phone: 801 377 2740 ~ e-mail:

DNA Case Study Question
Facts & Genes from Family Tree DNA
February 23, 2005  Volume 4, Issue 1
Sent by Tom Ascensio,

Question:  My wife's parents are elderly and we are thinking about asking them to have their DNA tested. Our dilemma is that we have no idea what test to have done. Please bear in mind that this would probably be a once in a lifetime opportunity! 

Testing your wife's elderly parents is an excellent approach to learn more about their origins, as well as to get their DNA on file for future scientific advances.  Testing at Family Tree DNA includes 25 years of storage.

For your wife's mother, you would want to order an mtDNA test.  A mtDNA test would tell you about her direct female line, which would be your wife's mother's mother, her mother, and so forth back in time.  The result for your wife's mother would also apply to your wife.  mtDNA is inherited by both males and females from their mother, and only passed on by females.

For your wife's father, you would select a the Y DNA test.  A Y DNA tells you about his direct male line, which would be his father, and his father, and back in time.  There are 3 choices for a Y DNA test, depending on the number of Markers.  The tests are:
Y-DNA12   tests 12 Markers
Y-DNA25   tests 25 Markers
Y-DNA37   tests 37 Markers

The primary issue is a budget issue, and you can upgrade tests in the future. You may also want to consider an mtDNA test for your wife's father, to learn about his mother's direct female line.  In addition, if your wife is curious about her mother's paternal line, perhaps a male brother of your wife's mother is still living, whom you could test.  This result would tell your wife about her mother's father direct male line.

Source: TREASURE MAPS Genealogy E-mail Newsletter
Copyright 2005 by Robert Ragan. 

LifeJournal is journal writing software that greatly enriches the journal writing experience. With LifeJournal, you experience the same benefits from expressing thoughts, feelings, and creativity as you do in a traditional journal or diary. But with LifeJournal's innovative journal writing features and organization and search functions, you can: 

-Effortlessly maintain a searchable record of your entries, -Track progress towards your personal and professional goals, -and gain insight and perspective.

BUT...One thing that should be mentioned is that this is a wonderful tool to help you write your autobiography. You can do it in a very natural way. This is a fine tool. The f-r-e-e demo is a good thing too. Here is what Ruth Folit, the president of the company wrote to me:

"LifeJournal is a journal software program that has a perfect balance of flexibility, customizability, and  structure.  I know many people in the genealogy world are working on their personal histories.  LifeJournal makes writing a personal history fun, easy, and manageable.  There are libraries of  prompts and quotes to help you get started if you need at times more inspiration than a blank screen.  There is a timeline where you can write anecdotes and landmark events of the past, and add
pictures, videos, or audio files.

LifeJournal  makes writing about your past and organizing it a much less daunting task than sitting in front of a word processing program.  You can easily write stories as they bubble up --in whatever order the memories surface--yet instantly the stories, photographs, and landmarks are organized graphically into a timeline.

Download a demo at and try it out for yourself. There is a lot of depth to the program, yet its intuitive design makes it easy-to-learn and easy-to-use."
       (Ruth Folit, President of Chronicles Software)

Google Tunes into TV

Google Video Enables Users to Search TV Content From PBS, the NBA, Fox News, C-SPAN, and Others

MOUNTAIN VIEW, Calif.--Jan. 25, 2005--Google Inc. (Nasdaq:GOOG) today announced the availability of Google Video, a new service that enables users to search the content of television programs from leading TV content providers including PBS, the NBA, Fox News, and C-SPAN, among others. This announcement demonstrates Google's commitment to creating innovative technologies that provide access to a greater diversity of the world's information.

"What Google did for the web, Google Video aims to do for television," said Larry Page, Google co-founder and president of Products. "This preview release demonstrates how searching television can work today. Users can search the content of TV programs for anything, see relevant thumbnails, and discover where and when to watch matching television programs. We are working with content owners to improve this service by providing additional enhancements such as playback."

The Google Video beta ( enables users to search across the closed captioning content of a growing number of TV programs that Google began indexing in December, 2004. Entering a query such as (iPod) will return a list of relevant television programs with still images and text excerpts from the exact point in the program where the search phrase was spoken. Google Video offers these additional search features:

* Preview page: Displays up to five still video images and five short text segments from the closed captioning of each program.
* Upcoming episodes: Shows when the program will be aired next.
* Search within the show: Enables searching for specific words within a given program.
* Program details: Offers program and episode information including channel, date and time.
* Change location: Finds the next time and channel where a program will air locally according to zip code.

For television channels and content producers, Google Video can increase viewership by providing Google users with information on future airings of relevant programs.

"For more than three decades PBS and local PBS stations have pioneered the use of state-of-the -art technology to use media to inform, engage, entertain, and educate the American public," said Pat Mitchell, President and CEO of PBS. "Today we are proud to join with Google, a company that continues to achieve new levels of technical innovation with the launch of Google Video, a new service that increases the reach and impact of PBS content."

"NBA fans are tech savvy early adopters," said NBA Commissioner David Stern. "With our partnership with Google on the pioneering Google Video service, we enhance our ability to meet the needs of NBA fans, delivering to them content and information in a new and innovative way."

This early-stage release of Google Video does not include Google AdWords advertising or playback options. For more information, please visit .

About Google Inc.

Google is a global technology leader focused on improving the way people connect with information. Google's innovations in web search and advertising have made its website a top Internet destination and its brand one of the most recognized in the world. Google maintains the world's largest online index of websites and other content, and Google makes this information freely available to anyone with an Internet connection. Google's automated search technology helps people obtain nearly instant access to relevant information from it vast online index. For more information, visit .
Contact: Google Inc.   Nathan Tyler, 650-623-4311




Bolivian Rock Art Research Society, Founded 1987
Journey of Mankind: The Peopling of the World

Sent by John Inclan

The Maya were concerned with creating monumental ceremonial spaces, often astronomically aligned, within which ritual and political theater could take place. 

This website was begun after my first visit to the Yucatan in 1995, and is an attempt to share photos and impressions of that astonishing ancient architecture which I had the privilege to see
Annotated Bibliography 

Example of the cities identified for Guatamala
Balamku | Becan | Bonampak | Calakmul | Chacmultun | Chicanna | Copan | Dzibilnocac | Edzna | Ek Balam | Hochob | Hormiguero | Izamal | Kabah | Kohunlich | Labna | Lamanai | Palenque | Quirigua | Sayil | Tikal | Uaxactun | Uxmal | Xlapak | Xpujil | Xunantunich | Yaxchilan

Copyright ©1995-2004 by Barbara McKenzie, all rights reserved. 
Please send comments to:    Last update: January 11, 2000 

Bolivian Rock Art Research Society, Founded 1987
Sociedad de Investigacion del Arte Rupestre de Bolivia
Sent by George Gause
Source: Robert Tarin

For further information please contact: Matthias Strecker, SIARB, Secretary/Editor, Casilla 3091, La Paz, Bolivia, e-mail:

Rock art research in Bolivia is still in its initial stages, if we consider the lack of an exact chronology and the lack of intensive investigations in many regions. There is very limited state funding for investigations of the countryís rich archaeological heritage, so it is left to a private scientific institution, Sociedad de Investigacion del Arte Rupestre de Bolivia (SIARB) to register, record and publish rock art sites. SIARB was founded in 1987. The society numbers some 150 members in Bolivia as well as world-wide. It publishes a yearly journal, BoletÌn, and a series called Contributions to South American Rock Art Studies.

Surveys of rock art regions by SIARB have already registered approximately 1,000 rock art sites all over Bolivia, though mainly in the highlands (altiplano) and valleys. So far, few sites have been found in the tropical Amazon lowlands. 

The Bolivian Rock Art Society SIARB, supported by the Bradshaw Foundation and the Embassies of Germany and the Netherlands, is making progress in works in the archaeological park at Calacala, Bolivia.

Viewing platform at the Calacala Rock Art gallery site


Journey of Mankind: The Peopling of the World
Stephen Oppenheimer - Out of Africa human origins
Bradshaw Foundation

The Bradshaw Foundation, in association with Stephen Oppenheimer, presents a virtual global journey of modern man over the last 160,000 years. The map will show for the first time the interaction of migration and climate over this period. We are the descendants of a few small groups of tropical Africans who united in the face of adversity, not only to the point of survival but to the development of a sophisticated social interaction and culture expressed through many forms. Based on a synthesis of the mtDNA and Y chromosome evidence with archaeology, climatology and fossil study, Stephen Oppenheimer has tracked the routes and timing of migration, placing it in context with ancient rock art around the world.

As the science of genetics advances and archaeological discoveries are made, the Journey of Mankind map will be updated accordingly.




Gratitude: The Secret Behind Creativity b y Nancy Marmolejo
"Tax Tips for 2005" by Armando G. Roman


Gratitude: The Secret Behind Creativity by Nancy Marmolejo

When you think of being more creative, what comes to mind? Most people think in terms of artistic skills, but creativity manifests itself in a number of ways beyond the obvious. Picture creativity like a jet stream that flows all around us: when we step up to the flow and dip our hands in, we easily grab wonderful ideas, refreshed insights and innovative actions. At times, things get in our way and we lose our contact with the creative flow. We consider ourselves in a rut, not creative, unproductive, dull. There is a simple practice that magically ignites the creative juices and brings joy to all parts of life. It takes practice, commitment, and an open mind.

It is gratitude. Giving thanks, appreciating others, acknowledging the wonderful things we have in our lives. 

Gratitude is extremely powerful and can't be activated unless consciously practiced every day of our lives. It can turn a sour mood into a joyous one, make us laugh at our own silly shortcomings, and open our hearts up to increased appreciation of all that surrounds us. It doesn't take a rocket scientist to figure it out… it just takes willingness. 

Do the following ritual acts daily for at least 30 days. After 30 days, you're free to discontinue and your misery will be gladly refunded. J

1. Make a Gratitude list.

Start reciting the alphabet and fill in a person, place or thing for each letter. (If you're stuck for people's names that start with the letter X, remember Xena the Warrior Princess and my friends Gil and Lily's cool kid Xiarel. He won't mind if you're grateful for him!) Making a Gratitude List is a wonderful way to shift your focus when feeling down. 

2. Write thank you notes for everything.

Have a wonderful client? Send her a card. Do you appreciate the service at a neighborhood store? Write a note saying so. Feeling extra artistic? Make your own card and envelope. Be creative. 

3. Free e-cards are everywhere on the Internet. 

These are easy ways to send a grateful thought to someone. 

4. When you go out to eat or patronize a store that gives you exceptional service, ask for the manager. 

Tell her what a wonderful time you had and how nice it was to visit. 

5. Whenever you write a check, jot the words "Thank You!" in the memo line. 

Even though you're parting with your dear cash, think of the goods or services you enjoyed in return. (Some people believe that this practice will attract wealth... you never know unless you try!) When you endorse a check, be sure to write thank you for the abundance.

6. Thank the people in your life who would least expect it. 

"Mom, thank you for having me." She'll probably come back at you with a shocked look, but think how dull the world would be without you! 

7. Thank a child for something. Children learn from example. Teach your children about gratitude when they're young. 

8. Thank an elder. Our elders have such a wealth of knowledge and experience to offer us. Take a moment to express your gratitude to a special older person in your life. 

9. Write a thank you letter to your Higher Power. Express your gratitude for your life and all that is around you. 

10. Write a letter of thanks to yourself. What are your special gifts and traits? What makes you uniquely you?

Challenge yourself to practicing these acts of gratitude everyday for the next month. Use your creative gifts to add that unique touch of yours to the way you express thanks. 

Your creativity will rise to the occasion at unexpected times. Welcome it and have fun! 

Nancy Marmolejo is a life and business coach for creative women and the owner of Comadre Coaching. To contact Nancy, email or call 714-777-1216. Sign up for Nancy's award winning newsletter, The Pocket Comadre, by visitng

Article Title: Gratitude: The Secret Behind Creativity
Article Summary: There are a number of ways in which creativity manifests itself. This expression of creativity may arise from wonderful ideas, refreshed insights and innovative actions. Practice, commitment and an open mind bring joy to all parts of life.
Author's email:
Author's URL:
Website name: Comadre Coaching
Phone: 714-777-1216
Sent by Jagmohan Saluja

"Tax Tips for 2005" by Armando G. Roman
Celebrating 10 Years In Business! 1994 - 2004  
If I can answer any questions, please call (602) 468-2400 or email me at Thank you for your time and consideration. 
Best Regards, Dafina H. Volkov,  Administrative Services Coordinator
2390 E. Camelback Road, Ste. 216, Phoenix, AZ 85016
Tel: (602) 468-2400 Fax: (602) 468-9414
Email:  website:
English Version Tax Tips: for 2005
By Armando G. Roman, CPA 

You may recall that President George W. Bush signed a new tax law October 2004.  Let’s talk about how the new tax law may affect you in 2005.  Here are a few things to keep in mind as you try to keep the tax collector from collecting too much.   

Hummer loophole Accountants know this as Section 179.  You may know this as the Hummer loophole.  This did not go away, but it has been cut back.  You can no longer buy a Hummer, Suburban or other SUV and expense the full amount in the year of purchase.  The amount that can be expensed is limited to $25,000. 

Donating vehicles to charity. With the new tax law, car donation programs which have been very successful for many not-for-profit organizations, may be severely limited.  

The new law remains to be clarified, but it looks as though a donated vehicle must be used to support the mission of the nonprofit entity, not just provide money from a vehicle that was sold at auction.  Before donating a vehicle to charity for tax purposes, make sure you know how much of a charitable contribution can be claimed.  This change may reduce the income of many not-for-profit organizations.  

 Itemized deductions for state and local sales taxes. Prior to the new tax law, sales taxes were not deductible as an itemized deduction.  Now they are.  Taxpayers can deduct actual sales taxes or use IRS published tables and add actual sales taxes paid for large items, such as automobiles and furniture.  The sales tax deduction is an either/ or between taking the sales tax or the itemized deduction for state and local income taxes.   

Home office. Almost anyone can have a deductible home office, whether you’re an employee or self-employed.  Even if you have an actual office outside the home, you likely still qualify to claim a deduction for your home office, allowing deduction of furniture costs, telephone bills, wall art and much more.  This is not new, but it is often overlooked. 

Deductible Interest Expense.  The only deductible personal interest is home mortgage interest.  Mortgage interest is generally fully deductible as an itemized deduction, but there are caps if your income gets too high.  For tax purposes, it is better to borrow money at very low mortgage rates and pay off other debt.  This is not new, but it remains a good strategy for 2005.  

Miscellaneous for 2005  The child tax credit stays at $1,000 (it was supposed to drop to $700).  The standard mileage rate is .40 cents per mile.  Marriage penalty goes away for basic standard deduction. The above are highlighted summaries of changes in the tax law for 2005.  Always seek professional advice before making tax based decisions.  


Spanish Version: Tips sobre impuestos para el 2005 Por Armando G. Roman, CPA 

Probablemente recuerda que el Presidente George W. Bush firmó una nueva ley de impuestos en Octubre del 2004. Hablemos como esta nueva ley puede afectarle en el 2005. Aquí estan algunos puntos que deben tomarse en cuenta para lograr que las autoridades fiscales no nos cobren tanto.  

Hummer Loophole
Los contadores lo conocen como sección 179. Probablemente usted lo ha escuchado mentar como “Hummer Loophole”. Esta oportunidad no ha desaparecido, pero ha sido limitada. Usted no podrá más comprar una Hummer, Suburban u otro tipo de SUV y deducir el valor total de estos vehiculos en el mismo año de la compra. El monto por deducir ha sido limitado a $25,000. 

Donación de Vehículos a Instituciones de Caridad 
Con la nueva ley los programas para donar su automóvil, que por cierto han servido de mucho a la organizaciones que operan si fines de lucro, han sido limitados. 

La nueva ley aun no es clarificada, pero parece ser que la determinación del valor de la deducción sera no solo el dinero que la organizació pueda obtener de la venta del vehiculo, sino el uso que la organización le otorgueé al vehiculo. Antes de donar un automóvil con fines fiscales, asegurese cuanto de esta contribución puede ser deducible. Este cambio probablemente reduzca el ingreso de muchas organizaciones de caridad. 

Impuestos Sobre Venta Estatales y Locales (Sales Taxes)Anteriormente a esta nueva ley, los impuestos sobre ventas (sales taxes) no eran deducibles; ahora si lo son. Los contribuyentes pueden deducir los impuestos de venta que hayan pagado en el año o pueden recurrir a unas tables publicadas por el IRS e incluir los impuestos sobre venta pagados por artículos mayores como vehiculos y muebles. La deducción de los impuestos sobre venta puede ser tomada en lugar de los impuestos pagados al estado o a la ciudad por su ingreso en el año. Es uno o el otro. Esta deducción forma parte de las deducciones detalladas (itemized deductions).  

El Uso de la Casa como Oficina  Casi todos podemos tener deducciones por estar utilizando nuestra casa como oficina, independientemente de que sea usted un empleado o tenga su propio negocio. Inclusive cuando usted tiene una oficina fuera de su casa, usted pudiera calificar para deducir ciertos gastos por utilizar su casa como oficina por ejemplo: gastos de muebles, teléfono, electricidad, etc. Esto no es nuevo en la ley, pero suele pasarse por alto. 

Intereses como Gasto  Los únicos intereses personales deducibles son los intereses por la hipoteca de su casa. Generalmente estos intereses son totalmente deducibles como parte de las deducciones detalladas (itemized deductions); sin embargo; existen ciertas limitaciones a esta deducción cuando su ingreso es muy alto. Desde el punto de vista de impuestos, es mas conveniente pedir dinero mediante una hipoteca con una baja tasa de interes y pagar otras deudas. Esto no es nuevo pero sigue siendo una buena estrategia para el 2005. 

Misceláneos para el 2005 
El “child tax credit” continua en $1,000, se esperaba fuera $700 antes de la nueva ley. El valor deducible por millas es $.40 por milla (standard mileage). “Marriage penalty” desaparece en el caso de las deducciones standard (standard deductions).  Lo anterior es solo un resumen de algunos puntos a destacar de la nueva ley sobre impuestos. No olvide consultar con un professional antes de tomar decisiones sobre impuestos.  





                03/01/2005 10:15 AM